Showing 12581 results

People and Organisations

Bell, G.

  • ZA-COM-04779
  • Person

Belo, Felipe Ximenes

  • ZA-COM-04781
  • Person
  • 1948–
Ordained a bishop in 1983. As spiritual leader of a territory that is overwhelmingly Catholic, he became one of the primary spokesmen of the people of East Timor. He denounced the brutal tactics and oppressive policies of the Indonesian government despite at least two attempts on his life, in 1989 and 1991. A strong believer in nonviolent resistance, Belo sought peaceful means to settle the troubles in his homeland. In 2004 he began serving as a missionary in Mozambique.

Ben Bella, Ahmed

  • ZA-COM-07580
  • Person
  • 25 December 1916 - 11 April 2012
Algerian politician, socialist soldier and revolutionary who was the first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965

Bengu, Sibusiso Mandlenkosi Emmanuel

  • ZA-COM-02677
  • Person
  • 1934-
Academic and politician. Served as secretary-general of Inkatha Freedom Party but due to differences with Mangosuthu Buthelezi left South Africa in 1978 and served as secretary for research and social action for the Lutheran World Foundation. Abroad he became friends with Oliver Tambo, then acting President of the African National Congress. Returned in 1991 to become the first black vice-chancellor of Fort Hare University. Became a minister of education in 1994 and 1999 served as South Africa's ambassador to Germany.


  • ZA-COM-04789
  • Corporate body

Benson, Mary

  • ZA-COM-03275
  • Person
  • 1919 - 2000
A friend of Mandela’s, Benson was a journalist, author, and anti-apartheid activist. After serving as an aide to various generals in World War II she settled in England. She returned to South Africa in 1957 and worked to raise funds for the defence of Mandela and 155 other accused in the Treason Trial. Mandela visited her in London on his clandestine trip
out of South Africa in 1962. Among her books is Mandela: The Man and the Movement (New York: W. W. Norton, 1986).


  • ZA-COM-01665
  • Person

Bernadt, Himan

  • ZA-COM-00088
  • Person
Many lawyers attended to Nelson Mandela’s legal and related matters during his incarceration. The Cape Town based legal firm Bernadt, Vukic, Potash & Getz (formerly Frank, Bernadt & Joffe) coordinated the work in the period 1966 – 1990. In 2004 Himan Bernadt presented the Centre of Memory with the firm’s legal files on Mandela.

Bernal, Martin Gardiner

  • ZA-COM-07687
  • Person
  • 10 March 1937 - 9 June 2013
British scholar of modern Chinese political history. He was a Professor of Government and near Eastern Studies at Cornell University.

Bernstein, Hilda

  • ZA-COM-02254
  • Person
  • 15 May 1915 - 8 September 2006
Member of the South African Labour Party League of Youth and the South African Communist Party (SACP), founding member of the Federation of South African Women. In 1953 she was banned by Ministerial decree from 26 organizations and all meetings, including bans on writing and being published. In 1960, she was detained under the State of Emergency without charge following the Sharpeville shootings.

Bernstein, Lionel

  • ZA-COM-04119
  • Person
  • 1920-2002
Architect and anti-apartheid activist. Leading member of the Communist Party of South Africa. Founding member and leader of the Congress of Democrats, one of the participating organisations in the 1955 Congress of the People at which the Freedom Charter was adopted. Defendant in the 1956 Treason Trial. After being acquitted in the Rivonia Trial, he and his wife, Hilda, went into exile (they crossed into neighbouring Botswana on foot). He remained a leading member of the ANC, whilst practising as an architect.
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