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Anti-Apartheid Movement Archives
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Congressional Black Caucus : [Part 2]

In January of 1969, newly-elected African American representatives of the 77th Congress joined six incumbents to form the Democratic Select Committee. The committee was renamed the Congressional Black Caucus, and the CBC was born in 1971. The CBC played an important role in anti-apartheid activities. The first bill concerning apartheid was introduced by the CBC in 1972 and urged the US government to withdraw financial support to the South African government. It encouraged universities and corporations to disinvest from South Africa. In 1985 Representative William Gray introduced the HR1460 bill prohibiting loans to, and new investments in, South Africa. Congress approved the bill one year later and it became known as the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986. Members of the CBC were active in rallies, not only in Washington DC but in their home districts as well.

Country Committee for South Africa Action [Landskomiteen Sydafrika-Aktion] (Danish Anti Apartheid Movement) : [Part 2]

The Country Committee for South Africa Action (LSA) was formed in 1978 by several organisations and political parties. It was one of the first organisations to co-ordinate campaigns at the local level. It organised several information campaigns involving speaking tours of ANC members as well as cultural events. It continues to operate as Africa Contact.

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 1]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

Defence and Aid Fund Netherlands (DAF Nederland) : [Part 1]

DAF Netherlands was established in 1965. It came out of the Comité Zuid-Afrika (founded in 1960), was affiliated to the IDAF, and was disbanded in 1991. It concentrated on fundraising for the defence of political prisoners and support to their families in South Africa. It also published informational materials.

Dennis Brutus : [Part 1]

Dr Dennis Vincent Brutus was a Zimbabwean-born South African activist, educator, journalist and poet best known for his campaign to have apartheid South Africa banned from the Olympic Games. His efforts eventually led to the country’s expulsion from the Games in 1970. Following 18 months on Robben Island and another year of house arrest, Brutus and his family were allowed to leave South Africa, settling in London in 1966. In 1970 he moved to the USA, and was granted political asylum in 1983. He was president of the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SAN-ROC).

End Loans to Southern Africa

The End Loans to Southern Africa (ELTSA) started in 1974 with campaigns against British banks with South Africa ties. Its aim was to end apartheid through the imposition of effective financial sanctions. It broadened its work to include consumer and shareholder action and parliamentary lobbying. It did a lot of research to support its campaigns. It transformed itself into the Southern Africa Economic Research Unit (SAERU) in 1994.

Enuga Sreenivasulu Reddy : [Part 2]

ES Reddy was born in India and moved to the USA to study at New York University. He held several positions at the United Nations and a driving force behind the Special Committee against Apartheid (of which he was Secretary from 1963 -1965) and its Centre against Apartheid (of which he was Director from 1976-1983). He also served as Director of the UN Trust Fund for South Africa and the Educational and Training Programme for Southern Africa.

European Economic Community

The European Economic Community was established in 1957 as a customs union towards the unification of Europe. Since 1993 it operates as the European Union - a political and economic union of European countries. The EEC was important with respect to sanctions against South Africa. The organisation was a rallying point for European anti-apartheid organisations to act against South Africa. Amongst other, it imposed a ban on trade and investments by member states in 1986.

Foundation Malibongwe [Stichting Malibongwe]

The Foundation Malibongwe was initiated by the AABN in 1988 to organise a women’s conference with ANC women and women from inside South Africa to exchange information and to discuss gender policies for a new South Africa. The foundation closed down in 1991.

Hackney Trades Council

The Hackney Trades Council was a trade union organisation that was involved in a wide variety of local and national campaigns and issues, including the anti-apartheid movement.

Hampshire College Committee for the Liberation of Southern Africa

The Hampshire College Committee for the Liberation of Southern Africa (HCCLSA) was a student organisation that campaigned to get Hampshire College to divest from companies doing business in South Africa. As a result, in 1976, Hampshire College became the first college in the country to divest from companies in South Africa. HCCLSA was involved in the formation of the Northeast Committee for the Liberation of Southern Africa, a coalition of organisations working for divestment of mostly organisations on college campuses.

Health and Refugee Trust of South Africa

The Health and Refugee Trust of South Africa was established in 1988. The prime objective of HEART was the provision of health and welfare to the tens of thousands of South African refugees during the apartheid regime. They sought to actively promote health education, immunisation, nutrition, and provision of essential drugs, water and sanitation and treatment of common diseases.

Holland Committee on Southern Africa [Komitee Zuiderlijk Afrika] : [Part 1]

The KZA existed from 1976 till 1996. It continued the work of the Angola Committee which started in 1961 in support of the liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies. It fundraised for material support to the liberation movements. One of its big campaigns was the oil boycott, mainly directed against (Royal Dutch) Shell. It bought shares in order to be able to attend shareholders meetings where it could pressure Shell to withdraw from South Africa. It initiated the formation of the Shipping Research Bureau, together with Kairos, and was part of the Liaison Group. The KZA merged with the AABN and the EMF in 1997 to form NIZA.

Holland Committee on Southern Africa [Komitee Zuiderlijk Afrika] : [Part 2]

The KZA existed from 1976 till 1996. It continued the work of the Angola Committee which started in 1961 in support of the liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies. It fundraised for material support to the liberation movements. One of its big campaigns was the oil boycott, mainly directed against (Royal Dutch) Shell. It bought shares in order to be able to attend shareholders meetings where it could pressure Shell to withdraw from South Africa. It initiated the formation of the Shipping Research Bureau, together with Kairos, and was part of the Liaison Group. The KZA merged with the AABN and the EMF in 1997 to form NIZA.

International Labour Organisation

The ILO is a specialised agency of the UN, and was founded in 1919 to work for the betterment of people in their place of work under conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. It organised numerous conferences on South Africa and apartheid and was active on boycott issues related to workers’ rights.

International Oil Working Group

The IOWG worked towards the implementation of the oil embargo as initiated by the UN General Assembly. It grew out of the Sanctions Working Group, which was established in 1979. IOWD researched topics relating to the oil embargo, monitored tanker movements, gave testimonies at UN meetings, and distributed information. The organisation closed down in 1987.

Irish Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 3]

The Irish AAM was established in 1964 and functioned till 1994. It was co-founded by Kader Asmal (who later became a South African MP and cabinet member) and started with sport, cultural, economic and academic boycotts and grew into an organisation that was active in all areas of anti-apartheid and solidarity. It gave direct support to the liberation movements and worked closely with the ANC. It continues to be active as the Ireland South Africa Association.

John de Courcy Ireland

John de Courcy Ireland was, amongst others, Secretary of the Central Branch of the Labour Party, and was involved in numerous progressive organisations. He had a distinguished and lifelong commitment to Irish and international maritime history and affairs, to radical politics and to humanism. He and his wife, Betty, were affiliated with The Irish Anti-Apartheid Movement. He was also a founding member of the Irish Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND).

Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights under Law (Southern Africa Project) : [Part 2]

The Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law was created at the request of President John F. Kennedy in 1963. It provided legal representation in political and quasi-political trials in South Africa. It sent out alerts to organisations in the US and to State Department officials concerning human rights violations.

Liberation : [Part 2]

Liberation started in 1954 as the Movement for Colonial Freedom (MCF) and changed its name in 1970 to Liberation. Its mission was to work towards the political freeing of colonial peoples and political independence. It worked with trade unions and the labour party, supported the AAM, War on Want and other organisations. It did a lot of educational work, organised public meetings and conferences, and lobbied government. It dissolved in 1997.

National Gathering against Apartheid [Rencontre National contre l’Apartheid] : [Part 2]

RNCA was a national organisation which started in the 1970s as L’Association Française d’Amitié avec les Peuples d’Afrique (AFASPA). AFASPA was created by trade unionists and anti-colonialists and most of it activities were focused on the French colonies. In 1986 RNCA was formed by AFASPA to focus solely on anti-apartheid activities. In the beginning it mainly worked towards the implementation of sanctions, but it later became a strong supporter of the ANC office in Paris. RNCA continues to operate as Rencontre National avec le People d’Afrique du Sud (RENAPAS).

Norwegian Church Aid [Kirkens Nødhjelp]

The NCA is a Christian emergency relief and development aid organisation. It was formed after World War II, when it started its work in Europe. In the 1970s it expanded its work to the rest of the world. It has supported many projects in Southern Africa, mainly through church organisations. The South African Council of Churches was one of its main collaborators, and channelled funds to the liberation movement inside South Africa.

Norwegian Students’ and Academics’ International Assistance Fund

SAIH was established in 1961 and worked with other NGOs and institutions to support projects in Africa and Latin America. It organised local universities and colleges around educational projects and supported many projects from the liberation movements. A substantial amount of their funding came directly from students’ contributions.

Oil Working Group : [Part 1]

The Oil Working Group was created in 1980 by War on Want, the Methodist Church Overseas Division and the United Reform Church to raise the issue of illegal oil exports to Southern Africa. They lobbied oil companies, raised questions at annual general meetings, undertook research and publicised their findings. The group was renamed Embargo in 1985 and ELTSA took over its administration. Embargo functioned until 1993.

Oil Working Group : [Part 2]

The Oil Working Group was created in 1980 by War on Want, the Methodist Church Overseas Division and the United Reform Church to raise the issue of illegal oil exports to Southern Africa. They lobbied oil companies, raised questions at annual general meetings, undertook research and publicised their findings. The group was renamed Embargo in 1985 and ELTSA took over its administration. Embargo functioned until 1993.

Organisation of Solidarity with the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America [Organización de Solidaridad con los Pueblos de Asia, Africa y América Latina] : [Part 2]

OSPAAAL was established following the Tricontinental Conference held in Havana, January 1966, to promote "solidarity with the Third World people's struggles, claims and most precious desires". The organisation supported struggles against colonialism and apartheid, and notably produced a large number of brightly coloured propaganda posters to promote its cause.

Organisation of Solidarity with the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America [Organización de Solidaridad con los Pueblos de Asia, Africa y América Latina] : [Part 4]

OSPAAAL was established following the Tricontinental Conference held in Havana, January 1966, to promote "solidarity with the Third World people's struggles, claims and most precious desires". The organisation supported struggles against colonialism and apartheid, and notably produced a large number of brightly coloured propaganda posters to promote its cause.

Organisation of Solidarity with the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America [Organización de Solidaridad con los Pueblos de Asia, Africa y América Latina] : [Part 5]

OSPAAAL was established following the Tricontinental Conference held in Havana, January 1966, to promote "solidarity with the Third World people's struggles, claims and most precious desires". The organisation supported struggles against colonialism and apartheid, and notably produced a large number of brightly coloured propaganda posters to promote its cause.

Oxfam International

Oxfam International was formed in 1995 by a group of independent non-governmental organisations. The name 'Oxfam' comes from Oxford Committee for Famine Relief, founded in Britain in 1942. Oxfam International member NGOs aimed to work together for greater impact on the international stage to reduce poverty and injustice. They organised their own anti-apartheid campaigns, and also participated in campaigns organised by AAMs.

Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement

The Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement (PRWM) was formed in 1970 by two African American Polaroid employees, Ken Williams and Caroline Hunter, when they discovered that the company's products were being used by the South African government to create photographs for the passbooks that all Africans were required to carry.The PRWM demanded that the company stop all sales to South Africa until the end of apartheid.

Prexy Nesbitt : [Part 1]

Prexy Nesbitt is an activist and academic from Chicago who was active in the struggle to end apartheid and worked to end colonialism in Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Namibia. He founded the Antioch Committee for a Free South Africa, which succeeded after a ten-year campaign to achieve the divestment of Antioch College’s holdings from companies involved with apartheid. Nesbitt worked for the American Committee on Africa (ACOA) where he coordinated the National Committee to Oppose Bank Loans to South Africa from 1976-1979. From 1979-1983 he was Program Director for the Program to Combat Racism of the World Council of Churches in Geneva. He has also worked for the Institute for Policy Studies, the American Friends Service Committee and Africa Action.

Shipping Research Bureau : [Part 1]

The Shipping Research Bureau was a specialist organisation, mainly dealing with research into the oil trade with South Africa and alerting the world to breaches of the UN oil embargo. It pressured national governments to adopt sanctions against South Africa. It was founded by the Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika (KZA) and Working Group Kairos in 1980, and continued operating until 1995.

South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee

The South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SAN-ROC) was formed in South Africa in 1962. SAN-ROC began operating from London when one of its founders, Dennis Brutus, went into exile in 1966. In 1970 Brutus moved to the United States, and SAN-ROC was then based in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Forerunners were the Committee for International Recognition, formed by non-racial sportsmen in 1955, and succeeded by the South African Sports Association (SASA) in 1958. SAN-ROC played a major role in South Africa being excluded from the Olympic Games in 1966, and from the entire Olympic movement in 1970.

Southampton Anti-Apartheid Group

The Southampton Anti-apartheid Group is perhaps best remembered for delivering a giant Barclays cheque to the local Barclays branch on 4 April 1979. The cheque was made payable ‘for bribery and corruption by the South African Government’ and signed ‘Connie Muldergate’. South African Information Minister Connie Mulder was forced to resign because he established a government slush fund to promote South Africa’s image overseas. SAAG was also involved in the boycott of South African imports, as well as the Shell and BP boycott organised by the national AAM in 1981.

Southern African Development Coordination Conference

The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), which was the forerunner of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), was formed in Lusaka, Zambia, on 1 April 1980. It grew from the Frontline States, an alliance of countries in Southern Africa formed in 1970 to aid the liberation movements in South Africa and Namibia and to form a front against apartheid. Some of the main goals of the SADCC were to lessen the dependency on apartheid South Africa and to introduce programmes and projects which would influence the Southern African region. It was renamed SADC in 1992.

Soviet Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee : [Part 3]

The SKSSAA was the state organisation through which a lot of the Soviet support to the liberation movements was channelled. SKSSAA was active internationally in the struggle against apartheid in South Africa. SKSSAA provided the African National Congress in exile with material resources, such as food, clothes and vehicles. The SKSSAA and other Soviet NGOs received South Africans in need of medical treatment, and arranged stays for them at Soviet hospitals. The organisation also coordinated activities for South African students in the Soviet Union. In 1992 the organisation was renamed Society of Afro-Asian Peoples' Solidarity and Co-operation.

Support Group Klaas de Jonge & Hélène Passtoors [Steungroep Klaas de Jonge & Hélène Passtoors]

The support group was formed when Dutch-Belgian couple De Jonge and Passtoors was arrested in South Africa in 1985 for smuggling weapons and explosives for the ANC into the country. De Jonge managed to seek refuge in the Dutch embassy in Pretoria, which caused a big diplomatic row. He stayed there for two years until he was exchanged with a South African prisoner. Passtoors was convicted of High Treason and imprisoned from 1985-1989. The support group, which campaigned for their release, closed down in 1989.

Swiss Anti-Apartheid Movement : French-speaking branch [Mouvement Anti-Apartheid Suisse] : [Part 2]

The Anti-Apartheid Movement of Geneva (MAAG) was founded in 1965 as the French-speaking branch of the national anti-apartheid movement. The organisation changed its name to MAAS in 1970. The initiators of MAAS had mainly a religious background. Both MAAS and its German-speaking sister branch AAB were co-ordinated by a common national committee. MAAS dissolved in 1994.

Swiss Anti-Apartheid Movement : French-speaking branch [Mouvement Anti-Apartheid Suisse] : [Part 3]

The Anti-Apartheid Movement of Geneva (MAAG) was founded in 1965 as the French-speaking branch of the national anti-apartheid movement. The organisation changed its name to MAAS in 1970. The initiators of MAAS had mainly a religious background. Both MAAS and its German-speaking sister branch AAB were co-ordinated by a common national committee. MAAS dissolved in 1994.

Swiss Anti-Apartheid Movement : German-speaking branch [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung der Schweiz] : [Part 2]

The Swiss German-speaking branch AAB was established on 1 March 1975 with the secretariat based in Zurich. The AAB organised numerous demonstrations, protest actions, conferences and seminars. Both AAB and its sister branch, MAAS, were co-ordinated by a common national committee. AAB activities were supported by various religious and social organisations. The AAB initiated the establishment of two other organisations, namely the Früchteboykott (Fruit Boycott) and the Aktion Finanzplatz Schweiz-Dritte Welt. The AAB changed its name to AAB Südliches Afrika in 1994, and MAAS dissolved in the same year.

The Nordic Documentation on the Liberation Struggle in Southern Africa Project

This site provides archival lists of primary source materials that can be found at Nordic archival institutions, NGOs and archives of individuals who have been involved in the liberation struggles of Southern Africa. The website includes interviews, photographs, publications, posters and newspaper cuttings from 1960-1996. It also provides some archival materials in PDF format.

Trades Union Congress : [Part 2]

The TUC is a federation of trade unions in the UK which started in 1868. It gave direct support to unions in South Africa and was active in boycott campaigns nationally and internationally.

Trevor Richards

Trevor Richards was national chairman of the Halt All Racist Tours (HART) movement from 1969-80, then its international secretary until 1985. He has also written extensively about the history of NZ sporting relations with apartheid South Africa.

United Nations Centre against Apartheid : [Part 1]

The Centre against Apartheid started in 1976 in the UN Secretariat under the name Unit on Apartheid. Its role was to promote publicity against Apartheid and it worked under the guidance of the Special Committee and in cooperation with the Department of Public Information. During its existence, it published hundreds of posters, audio materials and documentary films. It organised art competitions and exhibitions. It had radio broadcasts to South Africa in several languages. It worked closely together with the liberation movements and the AAMs. Many of the documents published by the Centre were written by members of liberation movements and the AAMs.

United Nations Centre against Apartheid : [Part 4]

The Centre against Apartheid started in 1976 in the UN Secretariat under the name Unit on Apartheid. Its role was to promote publicity against Apartheid and it worked under the guidance of the Special Committee and in cooperation with the Department of Public Information. During its existence, it published hundreds of posters, audio materials and documentary films. It organised art competitions and exhibitions. It had radio broadcasts to South Africa in several languages. It worked closely together with the liberation movements and the AAMs. Many of the documents published by the Centre were written by members of liberation movements and the AAMs.

University of the Western Cape, Robben Island Museum / Mayibuye Archives

The archives of the Robben Island Museum are housed at and managed by the UWC/RIM Mayibuye Archives. Some are located on the island, but the bulk is at the UWC Campus in Belville, Cape Town. The archives hold a large collection of artifacts, documents, photographs, artworks, personal papers and audio-visual materials. Although the emphasis is on South African organisations and people, many AAMs (national and international) and other international anti-apartheid organisations are represented in the collection. The IDAF, for example, deposited its entire archive at UWC/RIM Mayibuye.

War Resisters’ International

The WRI was established in 1921 as an organisation against war. Its members refuse to support war or preparations for war in various forms, such as refusing to engage in military service, pay taxes to support the military, etc. It is fundamentally committed to nonviolent action as a form of social struggle. WRI has provided training in nonviolence and held a number of international conferences. WRI was involved with solidarity work with the End Conscription Campaign and the Conscientious Objectors Support Group, which was formally affiliated with WRI.

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, New Zealand Section

In December 1916, a New Zealand branch of WILPF was established in Auckland. Branches in other cities were soon organised. In 1981 WILPF NZ organised a Women Against the Tour march in Auckland. Seven hundred people took part and 550 signed a petition, urging that the South African rugby team’s tour of NZ be cancelled. WILPF NZ members also took part in protests held when the tour went ahead. In 1989 the section’s name was officially changed to WILPF Aotearoa.

Working Group Kairos [Werkgroep Kairos] (Kairos Study Group) : [Part 1]

The Working Group Kairos was founded in 1970 in support of the Christian Institute in South Africa. Its main focus was on human rights violations and to raise support for sanctions and disinvestments and campaigned against Shell. It worked especially in the Christian community in the Netherlands and was instrumental in the foundation of the Shipping Research Bureau (SRB). It was renamed Stichting Kairos (Kairos Foundation), date unknown.

Working Group Kairos [Werkgroep Kairos] (Kairos Study Group) : [Part 2]

The Working Group Kairos was founded in 1970 in support of the Christian Institute in South Africa. Its main focus was on human rights violations and to raise support for sanctions and disinvestments and campaigned against Shell. It worked especially in the Christian community in the Netherlands and was instrumental in the foundation of the Shipping Research Bureau (SRB). It was renamed Stichting Kairos (Kairos Foundation), date unknown.

Working Group Kairos [Werkgroep Kairos] (Kairos Study Group) : [Part 3]

The Working Group Kairos was founded in 1970 in support of the Christian Institute in South Africa. Its main focus was on human rights violations and to raise support for sanctions and disinvestments and campaigned against Shell. It worked especially in the Christian community in the Netherlands and was instrumental in the foundation of the Shipping Research Bureau (SRB). It was renamed Stichting Kairos (Kairos Foundation), date unknown.

World Gold Commission

The World Gold Commission (WGC) was founded in 1988 to promote worldwide sanctions against South African gold sales. It received financial support from the UN Centre Against Apartheid and was backed by the AAM and the liberation movements. It was active in information dissemination and the presentation of evidence to international bodies.
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