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Africa News Service

ANS started in 1973 as a not-for-profit US news agency. For two decades it gathered news about Africa related issues and the US foreign policy towards Africa. It continues to operate as AllAfrica Global Media.

African Activists Archive Project

The African Activists Archive Project at Michigan State University works to preserve the history of US organisations and people in the struggle against apartheid. The very substantial website contains a directory of archives with descriptions. The project also has a substantial section on organisations outside the USA.

American Committee on Africa : [Part 1]

The American Committee on Africa (ACOA) was formed in 1953 to support the liberation struggle in Africa. It grew out of the ad-hoc organisation Americans for South African Resistance (AFSAR), set up to support the Defiance Campaign of the ANC in 1952. It started with an office in New York City and opened an office in Washington DC in 1967. The NYC office had a national focus and organised sanctions and divestment campaigns at universities, churches, states and cities. It merged in 2001 with Africa Fund (AF) and Africa Policy Information Centre (APIC) to form Africa Action.

American Committee on Africa : [Part 4]

The American Committee on Africa (ACOA) was formed in 1953 to support the liberation struggle in Africa. It grew out of the ad-hoc organisation Americans for South African Resistance (AFSAR), set up to support the Defiance Campaign of the ANC in 1952. It started with an office in New York City and opened an office in Washington DC in 1967. The NYC office had a national focus and organised sanctions and divestment campaigns at universities, churches, states and cities. It merged in 2001 with Africa Fund (AF) and Africa Policy Information Centre (APIC) to form Africa Action.

Congressional Black Caucus : [Part 1]

In January of 1969, newly-elected African American representatives of the 77th Congress joined six incumbents to form the Democratic Select Committee. The committee was renamed the Congressional Black Caucus, and the CBC was born in 1971. The CBC played an important role in anti-apartheid activities. The first bill concerning apartheid was introduced by the CBC in 1972 and urged the US government to withdraw financial support to the South African government. It encouraged universities and corporations to disinvest from South Africa. In 1985 Representative William Gray introduced the HR1460 bill prohibiting loans to, and new investments in, South Africa. Congress approved the bill one year later and it became known as the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986. Members of the CBC were active in rallies, not only in Washington DC but in their home districts as well.

Cornell University Divestment Movement

A group at Cornell University, consisting of academics, staff and students, organised divestment campaigns at the university from 1976-1987. The group organised sit-ins and civil disobedience activities.

Council on African Affairs

The CAA started around 1943 and continued to operate until 1955. It worked on educating people on the history and struggle against colonialism and imperialism in Africa. It organised famine relief campaigns, legal defence funds and sit-ins and demonstrations. It organised public campaigns and fundraising for, amongst others, the ANC’s 1952 Defiance Campaign. The organisation was crippled by the emergence of the Cold War and the investigations of the House Un-American Activities Committee. It was repeatedly investigated.

Dennis Brutus : [Part 4]

Dr Dennis Vincent Brutus was a Zimbabwean-born South African activist, educator, journalist and poet best known for his campaign to have apartheid South Africa banned from the Olympic Games. His efforts eventually led to the country’s expulsion from the Games in 1970. Following 18 months on Robben Island and another year of house arrest, Brutus and his family were allowed to leave South Africa, settling in London in 1966. In 1970 he moved to the USA, and was granted political asylum in 1983. He was president of the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SAN-ROC).

Educators against Racism and Apartheid

Educators against Racism and Apartheid began in 1985 as Educators against Apartheid but it extended its activities to include racism in the USA and changed its name. Besides developing educational materials for schools and publishing a newsletter distributed to educators all over the country; it also organised a boycott of Kellogg’s cereals, appealing to young people. It was active in a campaign to withdraw US teachers’ retirement funds from companies dealing with South Africa.

Frances E. Williams

Frances E. Williams was a notable African-American actress and activist in Los Angeles from the early 1940s until her death in 1995. As an activist, she was an outspoken advocate for social justice and equality, and her political activism spanned outside her local community to around the world. She was most notably involved in the South African anti-apartheid movement and communist solidarity activities, including the National Anti-Imperialist Movement in Solidarity with African Liberations (NAIMSAL), the Los Angeles Chapter, and Art against Apartheid.

Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch began in 1978 as Helsinki Watch (HW), a monitoring group of compliance by the former Soviet Union and communist bloc countries with the human rights provision of the 1975 Helsinki Final Act. It later extended its activities to other regions of the world, including Africa. It produces research reports on violations of human rights and pressurises governments and international organisations.

Madison Anti-Apartheid Coalition

The Madison Anti-Apartheid Coalition started at the Madison Area Committee on Southern Africa and was active from 1968-1992. It was a student organisation at the University of Wisconsin to lobby and educate the community about South Africa, and to support the liberation movements.


Transafrica was founded in 1977 as the African American Lobby on Africa and the Caribbean. It worked closely with the Congressional Black Caucus and was active in divestments, boycott and other campaigns. It organised and participated in sit-ins in the office of the South African ambassador in Washington, followed by demonstrations outside South African embassies and consulates, organised by what became the Free South Africa Movement (FSAM).


From Publishers Weekly
As a military intelligence officer in World War II, Rockefeller learned his effectiveness depended on his "ability to develop a network of people with reliable information and influence." During his long life-he turned 87 this year-he's amassed a Rolodex of more than 1,000 contacts, and in this satisfying autobiography, he describes firsthand encounters with Pablo Picasso, Sigmund Freud, Fiorello La Guardia, oil sheikhs, Latin American strongmen and others. Critics might say Rockefeller's not too choosy about the company he keeps ; they claim he's "never met a dictator he didn't like." Indeed, he has been roundly criticized for the role he and Henry Kissinger played in persuading the Carter administration to allow the exiled shah of Iran into the U.S., an event widely believed to have sparked the hostage crisis. But this memoir is much more than a titillating account of wealth and international intrigue. Rockefeller also meticulously recounts the modernizing of Chase Bank, where he worked for 35 years, rising to become chairman and chief executive, finally giving the company-which merged with JP Morgan in 2001-a written history on a par with Ron Chernow's The House of Morgan. New York City also dominates here ; after Robert Moses, the Rockefeller clan has had the strongest hand in shaping the modern urban landscape, from Wall Street to midtown to Morningside Heights. Indispensable for anyone interested in financial and American history, Rockefeller's well-organized remembrances present a deeply fascinating, thorough look into the life of a living legend.

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Lives That Changed The World: Nelson Mandela : [Filmography]

This profile on South African president Nelson Mandela tells the legendary leader's inspiring tale from the beginning, detailing his work as an activist, his 27 year imprisonment, and his ascension to the seat of political power that led the Nobel Peace Prize winner to inspire so many. First aired on the Smithsonian Network in 2007

Pequeneza, Nadine

South Africa: The Making of US Policy: 1962-1989

This collection provides primary source documents describing U.S. relationships to apartheid including implementation, enforcement, and violations of the U.N-sponsored sanctions against South Africa. Including the following that relate to the Rivonia Trial:
-United States Embassy (South Africa) reports that the African National Congress (ANC) was created to carry out sabotage, stating that the arrest of Nelson Mandela occurred after he planned subversive activities (1962).
-A memorandum issued by the Summit Conference of Independent African States held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (1963), agreeing to provide funding to help South African liberation movements and calling for the release from prison of Nelson Mandela, Robert Sobukwe and all other political prisoners.
-A memorandum on the Rivonia Trial providing biographical information on the Rivonia Trialists, and in which Nelson Mandela argues that opposition groups resorted to armed struggle only after avenues for peaceful change were blocked (1964).
-A report in which ANC and Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) leaders, including Nelson Mandela, Michael Harmel and Walter Sisulu are described as Communists, and documents presented during the Rivonia Trial are cited as evidence of the contacts between the ANC, PAC, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of the People's Republic of China (1964).
-A memorandum of conversation in which Cecil Eprile characterises black leaders like Nelson Mandela as careless and prone to bad judgment (1965).
-A cable relating to Resolution 473 of the United Nations Security Council urging South Africa to release all political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela (1980).
-Biographic sketch information on Nelson Mandela provided by the US Department of State (1983).
-A cable on the awarding of the international Simon Bolivar prize to Nelson Mandela by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) (1983).
-Correspondence to the South African Ambassador to the United States, calling for the release of Nelson Mandela (1984).
- A cable about the Johannesburg Star Newspaper reports that the arrest of Nelson Mandela 25 years ago occurred after he was betrayed by a US Central Intelligence Agency agent posing as a diplomat of the United States Consulate General in Durban (1986).
- A statement in which Chester A. Crocker calls for the release of Nelson Mandela (1986).
- A report in which the US Department of State Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on South Africa asserts that the first steps taken by South Africa must be the release of Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki and all other political prisoners (1987).

The National Security Archive is a non-profit research institute and library providing public access to declassified government documents obtained through the U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). These are then published as declassified document sets (as this one on South Africa), are produced in microfiche, and digitised to become part of the Digital National Security Archive database which some universities subscribe to (Monash University in South Africa).

US State Department

Records of the Foreign Office: Export of Arms to South Africa: Internal Security Operations: Rivonia Sabotage Trial of ANC Leaders

These records fall under: Foreign Office: Political Departments: General Correspondence; Africa, West and Central (J): South Africa (JS) subseries.

Contains records on Rivonia Sabotage Trial of ANC leaders, including:
-The trial and sentencing of Constable Johannes Arnoldus Greef for his role on helping Arthur Goldreich to escape (newspaper article)
-Report on the substance of O.R. Tambo to the U.N. special committee about people accused of sabotage (9 October 1963)
-Report on the proceedings of the Rivonia trial (press reports)
-222 Acts of sabotage between 10 August 1961 and 1963 (article from the Star newspaper 9 October 1963)
-Moves to raise Pretoria trial issue at U.N. (article from the Star, 10 October 1963)
-Conversation with Bram Fischer about the Rivonia trial
-Letter from Durossil to the Foreign Office, London (19 October 1963)
-De Wet quashed indictment "The Rivonia trial collapses" (articles from the Rand Daily Mail, 30 October 1963)

UK Foreign Office

Records of the Foreign Office: Rivonia Trial

These records fall under: Foreign Office: Political Departments: General Correspondence; African, West and Central (J): South Africa (JS) subseries.

Correspondence from the Nigerian diplomats on various British expatriates working at universities and hospitals who will resign from their positions if Nelson Mandela is sentenced to death (29 May 1963).

It was not possible to verify the existence of these records at the time of this audit.

UK Foreign Office

Africana Video Collection

A number of video recordings relating to the life story of Nelson Mandela and thus mentioning the Rivonia Trial. Including:
-Mandela (968 M271Zma), vhs, 135 minutes; c1987; directed by Philip Saville. Contains a dramatic reenactment of his unjust trial for treason, lengthy imprisonment.
-Mandela: The First Accused (968 M271Zmandl), vhs, 109 minutes; 1999; director, Clifford Bestall; producers, Indra de Lanerolle, David Fanning.


Records of the American Committee on Africa (ACOA)

Documents the pioneering anti-apartheid group in the US from its establishment in the 1950s. Documents related to Rivonia Trial are:
-Campaign against South African Apartheid: Memos, draft letters to and lists of sponsors, resolutions and declarations, flyers, clippings and notes 1963 (1960-1964). Major topics: Appeal for action against Apartheid, Rivonia arrests and trials, international boycott of South African goods etc.
-African National Congress Pamphlets. Includes: South African on Trial: Behind the Rivonia Case (no date).
-Mandela, Nelson (ca. 1964). Major topic: Rivonia trial.
-World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners: Rivonia Trial: Newsletters, statements, press releases, brochure (1963-1964).
-Writings: Chief Albert Luthuli (1957 and 1964). Major topics: Racial situation, Rivonia trial, ANC.
-Writings: Nelson Mandela (1961 and 1964). Major topics: 1961 Stay-at-home demonstration, Rivonia trial.

Microfilm versions available at Manuscripts and Archives, University of Cape Town.

American Committee on Africa

South African Documents and Press Clippings Collection

Documents and press clippings concerning various topics related to South African politics and government. Includes press clippings on four political trials: Bram Fischer Trial, Rivonia Trial, Trial of 22, Breyten Breytenbach Trial.


Dennis Brutus Papers

Collection of documents including correspondence, newsletters, pamphlets, press clippings, memoranda and media releases. The subjects covered include:
Biographical material on Nelson and Winnie Mandela. Robben Island. Nelson Mandela's health during his imprisonment, and calls for independent medical treatment.
Petitions and campaigns for Nelson Mandela's release from prison. US House Resolution 430 entitled, "The Mandela Freedom Resolution," submitted by Geo W. Crockett Jr., Hamilton Fish Jr., Claude Pepper and Jim Leach, calling for Nelson Mandela's release from prison.
Prison conditions.
The work of the International Anti-apartheid Movement, particularly the Free South Africa Movement (USA). International tributes, such as the Nelson Mandela bust on Trafalgar Square (London) and the statue at Merrion Square (Dublin). Honorary degrees conferred on Mandela. Seventieth birthday tributes. Nelson Mandela's release from prison in February 1990, and his visit to the US later that year. The International Reception Committee, established to welcome Nelson Mandela after his release from prison. Marches and rallies held in the US celebrating his release from prison. Nelson Mandela's address to the US Congress, and remarks made to newspaper editors and writers in the US on the new South Africa. Political negotiations, the future of sanctions, the reasons for his release from prison and the armed struggle.
Speeches, statements and articles by Mandela.
The list of correspondents includes Dennis Brutus, John Fiordelisi, Randall Robinson, Archbishop Trevor Huddleston and Geo W. Crockett Jr.
News clippings are from the Boston Sunday Globe, Chicago Sunday Times, Chicago Tribune, Ebony Magazine, New York Post, New York Times, State News and USA Today.

Brutus, Dennis

Joel Carlson South African legal files

Joel Carlson was a South African lawyer who was devoted in anti-Apartheid activities. He was also one of the lawyers that represented Nelson Mandela, and members of the Mandela family against the Apartheid injustice. In this collection there are three original letters written by Nelson Mandela to members some member of his family dating from the 15th July 1969 until 1 July 1970.

Vanderbilt University Archive

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on channels such as ABC, CNN and NBC. Includes footage and reports on the following:
Bastille Day in Paris, France commemorating the French Revolution, with scenes of Nelson Mandela visiting France. The death of Princess Diana and President Nelson Mandela’s remembrances of her. A statement by President Mandela at a Commonwealth meeting, supporting Muammar Kadhafi’s position that PAN AM 103-suspected bombers should be tried in a neutral country. Scenes of Prince Charles with President Nelson Mandela during a visit by Prince Charles to South Africa.


Vanderbilt University Archive

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on channels such as ABC, CBC, CNN, and NBC. Includes footage and reports on the following:
The South African government ban on birthday celebrations honouring Nelson Mandela. Senator Edward Kennedy’s meeting with Winnie Mandela. Nelson Mandela observing his birthday in prison. Riot police breaking up birthday gatherings. Scenes of a celebratory march in London in honour of Nelson Mandela’s 70th birthday. Nelson Mandela's 80th birthday celebrations in South Africa, and the announcement of his marriage to Graca Machel. Birthday tributes to Nelson Mandela on his 85th birthday.


Vanderbilt University Archive

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on channels such as ABC, CBC, CNN, NBC and Nightline. Includes footage and reports on the following:
The possibility of Nelson Mandela's release from prison. Calls for Mandela's release from prison, including calls made by the US Secretary of State George Shultz, the US National Security Advisor Robert McFarlane, and white South African business leaders. PW Botha’s insistence on conditions for Mandela's release. Commentary by Allan Boesak on the "political necessity" of Nelson Mandela's release. Nelson Mandela’s refusal of the offer of conditional release, and his response read on his behalf by his daughter, Zindzi, to a mass gathering in Soweto. The possibility of Nelson Mandela being freed for exile in Zambia. Possible conditions of Nelson Mandela’s release, said to include a prisoner exchange with Angola for South African commando Wynand Du Toit, and freedom for Russian prisoners Andrei Sakharov and Anatoly Shcharansky. The release of Govan Mbeki, Zephania Mothopeng and Harry Gwala and possible implications for Nelson Mandela’s release. The release of Walter Sisulu and six other anti-apartheid leaders, and the implications of this for Nelson Mandela’s release.


Vanderbilt University Archive

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on news channels such as CNN, NBC, ABC, CBS and Nightline. Includes footage and reports on South Africa's transition to democracy:
Talks between Nelson Mandela and FW De Klerk about the terms for a democratic election in South Africa, both prior to and after Mandela’s release from prison. De Klerk’s offer to negotiate with the African National Congress (ANC) if it would renounce violence. The statement by Nelson Mandela in 1989, urging the government to negotiate with the ANC Reactions inside South Africa to the 1989 meeting between Nelson Mandela and PW Botha, with commentary from Helen Suzman, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Ismail Ayob and Reverend Frank Chikane. Talks about power sharing between the ANC and the apartheid government. The ANC's suspension of armed struggle, following talks with the South African government. Nelson Mandela being urged by De Klerk to drop the South African Communist Party (SACP) leader Joe Slovo, from the ANC negotiating team. A statement from De Klerk that he will reject ANC demands for outright majority rule. The possibility of peace talks between Nelson Mandela and Mangosuthu Buthelezi, and Buthelezi’s reactions to agreements made between Nelson Mandela and De Klerk. Strains in the relationship between the ANC and the South African government because of continuing political violence. Scenes of political violence such as the Boipatong Massacre (1992) and conflict between Inkatha and the ANC. The ANC’s announcement to withdraw from negotiations, and the resumption of talks. The broader political situation in South Africa.


Vanderbilt University Archive

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on channels such as ABC, CBC, CNN, NBC and Nightline. Includes footage and reports on the following:
The Anti-Apartheid struggle being waged by the African National Congress (ANC), and Nelson Mandela's role. The history of the ANC and Nelson Mandela’s early leadership role. Nelson Mandela’s role in the development of the Freedom Charter.
Scenes of Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo attending the first ANC national conference held in South Africa after the ANC unbanning. A statement by Mangosuthu Buthelezi about Nelson Mandela’s position on the use of violence as a political means. Anti-apartheid speeches made by Nelson Mandela in the immediate aftermath of his release from prison. Commentary by Nelson Mandela on malpractices of the ANC in prison camps in exile. The election of Nelson Mandela as the ANC Deputy President. Nelson Mandela travelling to Zambia to meet with the ANC leadership there, soon after his release from prison. Nelson Mandela meeting Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO) leader, Yasser Arafat, and Zambian President, Kenneth Kaunda. Interviews by Ted Koppel with Nelson Mandela. Nelson Mandela’s call for the continuation of economic sanctions against South Africa, at the ANC national conference, 1991. Nelson Mandela's election to the presidency of the ANC. Nelson Mandela leading marches in Soweto and Pretoria, as part of an ANC mass action campaign. Nelson Mandela attending the funerals of five assassinated ANC activists. The election of Nelson Mandela’s successor to the ANC presidency. The ANC's suspension of armed struggle.


Vanderbilt University Archive

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on channels such as ABC, CBC, CNN, NBC and Nightline. Includes footage and reports on the following:
Nelson Mandela's relations with African countries. International condemnation of South African apartheid government raids against Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana. Nelson Mandela’s attendance of independence celebrations in Namibia. The execution of nine Nigerian political activists, including Ken Saro-Wiwa, condemned by Nelson Mandela and other world leaders. A meeting of African leaders, including Nelson Mandela, in Kenya to discuss the Rwandan Refugee Crisis.
The role of South Africa and the United States in peace talks in Zaire. Scenes of Nelson Mandela with Zairean rebel leader, Laurent Kabila.
An invitation from President Mandela for the Zairean President, Mobutu Sese Seko to meet with rebel leader, Laurent Kabila. Kabila’s decision to withdraw from peace talks. Comments by Nelson Mandela on the talks and scenes from the meeting. A request by Nelson Mandela for US military support for peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). A visit by Nelson Mandela to Libya, showing scenes of him with Libyan leader, Muammar Gadhaffi. Nelson Mandela’s role as mediator in the Burundi crisis, and visits to the United Nations to discuss the crisis. Scenes of Nelson Mandela as facilitator in peace meetings relating to the Burundi crisis. An appeal by Nelson Mandela for the release of four journalists who were arrested in Liberia.


Vanderbilt University Archive

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on channels such as ABC, CBC, CNN, NBC and Nightline. Includes footage and reports on Nelson Mandela's political imprisonment:
Reports on Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu. The possibility of Govan Mbeki being released from prison. Nelson Mandela's relocation to Victor Verster Prison. Visits to Nelson Mandela by Winnie Mandela and other family members. The possible role played by the Central Intelligence Agency in the Nelson Mandela’s 1962 arrest. Interviews with Nelson Mandela about his prison years. A recording of Nelson Mandela’ statement from the Dock at the Rivonia Trial.


Vanderbilt University Archive

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on channels such as ABC, CBC, CNN, NBC and Nightline. Includes footage and reports on the following:
The Mandela family. The arrest of Winnie Mandela for contravening her banning orders by returning to her house in Soweto. Visits by Winnie Mandela to Nelson Mandela in prison. The funeral of one of Nelson Mandela’s cousins in the Transkei. Winnie Mandela reported to have won the legal battle to have government bans on her lifted. The attack on the Mandela house in Soweto, with comments from Reverend Frank Chikane. The Mandela United Football Club, acting as bodyguards for Winnie Mandela. Nelson Mandela’s advice to Winnie Mandela about the kidnapping charges against her. Rumours of a rift between Nelson and Winnie Mandela. Nelson Mandela shown accompanying Winnie Mandela to court. A guilty verdict against Winnie Mandela and her sentencing. The announcement that Nelson and Winnie Mandela are separating. The reaction of Nelson and Winnie Mandela to the reduction of her prison sentence by the appeal court. Nelson Mandela moving out of Soweto into a Johannesburg suburb. A raid on the home of Winnie Mandela as part of a campaign against government corruption, and Nelson Mandela reportedly firing Winnie Mandela from the cabinet. The marital divorce of Nelson and Winnie Mandela. Scenes of Nelson Mandela’s sister-in-law tending her cornfields. Nelson Mandela’s relationship with Graca Machel. The wedding of Nelson Mandela and Graca Machel. The death of Nelson Mandela’s son, Makgatho Mandela, because of AIDS.


Files of United Nations Secretary-General, U Thant

Background notes on the question of race conflict in South Africa because of Apartheid, including an annexure on the indictment of Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Yusuf Dadoo, David Bopape, Yusuf Cachalia, Ahmed Kathrada, Daniel Tloome and Nana Sita for the contravention of apartheid laws during the 1952 Defiance Campaign.

U Thant

Files of United Nations Secretary-General, U Thant

Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, including:
The General Assembly Resolution 1761 (XVII) of November 1962, requesting that the South African government abandon all arbitrary trials and release all political prisoners. The General Assembly Resolution A/RES/1881 (XVIII) on the policies of apartheid of the government of South Africa, with reference to reports of the upcoming Rivonia Trial, with the possibility of death sentences for a large number of prisoners, 1963. Notes on the question of apartheid in South Africa, including a review of recent UN proceedings that call for the release of all political prisoners, 1964. Security Council resolutions calling for the release of all political prisoners, 1963 - 1964. Security Council resolution S/5761, calling for the ending of the [Rivonia Trial], and the granting of amnesty to all political prisoners and detainees, particularly the defendants in the Rivonia Trial, 1964.

U Thant

Files of United Nations Secretary-General, U Thant

Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, include:
Text of a statement by Achkar Marot, the representative of Guinea, to the UN, refers to Nelson Mandela's imprisonment on Robben Island. Response by the South African government to two articles published in the "UN Monthly Chronicle," which discusses the South African government's position on the Rivonia Trial, including Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock. The conclusion and recommendations of the International Seminar on Apartheid, Racial Discrimination and Colonialism in Southern Africa held in Kitwe, Zambia (1967). The conference recommended special campaigns around the incarceration of outstanding leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Robert Sobukwe and Bram Fischer.

U Thant

United Nations Photographic Library

Collection of photographs taken during Nelson Mandela's visits to the United Nations. Scenes covered include:
Nelson Mandela arriving at the United Nations (UN) to address the Special Committee Against Apartheid in the General Assembly (1990). Addresses to the UN General Assembly. Meetings with Secretary-General Javier Perez De Cuellar (1990 - 1991). Meetings with Secretary-General Boutros-Boutros Ghali (1992 - 1994). Nelson Mandela addressing press conferences at the UN Headquarters (1993 - 1994). Nelson Mandela addressing Heads of State attending the 49th session of the UN General Assembly (1994). Mandela's attendance of the 50th anniversary of the UN (1995. Nelson Mandela's attendance of the 53rd session of the General Assembly (1998). Nelson Mandela, as facilitator of the Burundi Peace Process, visiting the UN to brief the Security Council on the situation in Burundi.
Featured together with Nelson Mandela are:
Security Council President Mortar Ouane (Mali) and General Assembly President Harri Holkeri (Finland). Dumisani Khumalo, Permanent Representative of South Africa to the UN; Mayor David Dinkins of New York City. US boxers and boxing officials Mike Tyson, Jose Suleiman, Sugar Ray Leonard and Joe Frazier; Samir Sanbar, Assistant Secretary-General and Lakhdar Brahimi, formerly the Secretary-General's Special Representative for South Africa; Ibrahim Gambari, chairman of the Special Committee Against Apartheid; and Winnie Mandela.

United Nations

Association of Western European parliamentarians Against Apartheid (AWEPAA after 1993 AWEPA and African Europen Institute)

Materials documenting the work of the Washington Office on Africa, founded in 1972 to support freedom struggles in Southern Africa. Included in the collection are:
Tributes to Nelson Mandela, some of which commemorate his 65th birthday. US House Resolution 430 entitled the Mandela Freedom Resolution, calling for Mandela's release from prison, and the lifting of state imposed banning orders on Winnie Mandela.
Nelson Mandela's visit to the United States after his release from prison, the establishment of International Reception Committee to promote and co-ordinate activities during his visit to the United States.

Washington Office on Africa

Nelson Mandela Portrait Collection

Individual and group portraits of South African activist, leader and former political prisoner, Nelson Mandela, taken in 1990 during his visits to New York City and Stockholm, Sweden. The collection consists of: Close-up portraits of Nelson Mandela with New York City Mayor, David Dinkins, at Gracie Mansion and at a Harlem rally. Mandela meeting with African National Congress leader, Oliver Tambo, and the Reverend Jesse Jackson in Stockholm. Mandela sparring with South African boxing champion, Jerry Moloi, during the Treason Trial in 1957.
Photographers include Chester Higgins and Bob Gosani.

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (Photographs and Prints Division)

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) CREST

Congressional record house CREST General CIA records on Nelson Mandela : What if alive in free Some Sections Omitted
South Africa politics of racial reform.
South Africa: Dynamics of black politics
African National Congress of South Africa Organisation, Communist, Ties and short term prospects
Prospects for South Africa; Stability reform and violence
South Africa profile of an angry black ( Sections Omitted)
Prospects for South Africa stability reform and violence
Africa review
Terrorism review
Africa review
South Africa: The Boipatong massacre and the reigning of the security forces
South Africa weathering the storm
National daily intelligence
South Africa: Inkatha scandal may accelerate police restructuring
South Africa's brokers ballots and bullets
South Africa chronology
Africa review: special issue: South Africa entering the 1990's

Central Intelligence Agency

Militant Photographic Collection

Photographs, drawings, and printed reproductions of illustrations, depicting activities of anti war, civil rights, racial justice, women's rights and other protest movements in the United States and other countries, mainly from the 1960's through the 1990's. Includes Nelson Mandela speaks 1990-1994 and writing of Nelson Mandela

South African subject collection, 1941-1997

Pamphlets, serial issues, reports, leaflets, election campaign literature, flyers, newsletters, other printed matter, letters, sound recordings and video tapes, relating to political, social and economic conditions, Apartheid and race relations, and elections in South Africa; revolutionary movements in South Africa, especially the African National Congress; international support groups, especially in the United States, for such movements; and campus movements in the United States protesting investment in South Africa.

Kutner (Luis) Papers

Writings, correspondence, legal briefs and printed matter relating to international civil rights cases, world federation and attempt to secure international recognition of habeas corpus due process of law by an American lawyer. Includes clippings of Nelson Mandela, individual rights, release of Nelson Mandela terrorism etc.

Kutner, Luis

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