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Church of Sweden Aid : Swedish National Committee of the Lutheran World Federation [Lutherhjälpen]

This Committee was formed in 1947 to organise relief work in Europe after World War II. It started to include Southern Africa in its operations from around 1960. It is one of the biggest fund raising agencies for relief work and development aid. It supported the liberation movements and the SACC directly and lobbied for divestments.

Citizens' All Black Tour Association

In 1959 the Citizens' All Black Tour Association was set up to oppose another 'all-white' All Black tour of South Africa in 1960. Their slogan was ‘No Maoris, no tour’. When South Africa’s Springbok team toured New Zealand in 1921 they played an all-Māori team, but when the All Blacks toured South Africa in 1928 all Māori players were excluded.

City of London Anti-Apartheid Group (City Group) : [Part 2]

The City of London Anti-Apartheid Group was a breakaway group of the national AAM, founded in 1982 by Norma Kitson, and allied to the Revolutionary Communist Group. City Group developed a close working relationship not only with the ANC and SWAPO, but also with the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), AZAPO, and Black Consciousness supporters. In 1985 City Group was expelled from the national AAM, and from 1986 - 1990 its supporters maintained a Non-Stop Picket outside the South African Embassy in Trafalgar Square calling for the release of Nelson Mandela. The City Group archives provide an opportunity to understand a different perspective on the international anti-apartheid movement.

Congressional Black Caucus : [Part 1]

In January of 1969, newly-elected African American representatives of the 77th Congress joined six incumbents to form the Democratic Select Committee. The committee was renamed the Congressional Black Caucus, and the CBC was born in 1971. The CBC played an important role in anti-apartheid activities. The first bill concerning apartheid was introduced by the CBC in 1972 and urged the US government to withdraw financial support to the South African government. It encouraged universities and corporations to disinvest from South Africa. In 1985 Representative William Gray introduced the HR1460 bill prohibiting loans to, and new investments in, South Africa. Congress approved the bill one year later and it became known as the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986. Members of the CBC were active in rallies, not only in Washington DC but in their home districts as well.

Consultation Committee for Southern Africa [Samrådskommittén för Södra Afrika]

The Samrådskommittén för Södra Afrika (Consultation Committee for Southern Africa) was probably formed in 1973 and based on two declarations, the so-called Oslo and ILO documents. It was an umbrella committee or a network of organizations which all in one way or another were involved in the support for the liberation movements in Southern Africa. The member organizations represented various sections of the Swedish society, such as the labor movement, leftist and liberal political parties, youth organizations, the church and religious organizations, ANC and SWAPO representations, solidarity organizations for Vietnam, Cuba and Palestine and others. The committee arranged a campaign week in December 1973. The committee was probably dissolved in 1974.

Cornell University Divestment Movement

A group at Cornell University, consisting of academics, staff and students, organised divestment campaigns at the university from 1976-1987. The group organised sit-ins and civil disobedience activities.

Council on African Affairs

The CAA started around 1943 and continued to operate until 1955. It worked on educating people on the history and struggle against colonialism and imperialism in Africa. It organised famine relief campaigns, legal defence funds and sit-ins and demonstrations. It organised public campaigns and fundraising for, amongst others, the ANC’s 1952 Defiance Campaign. The organisation was crippled by the emergence of the Cold War and the investigations of the House Un-American Activities Committee. It was repeatedly investigated.

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 3]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

Dennis Brutus : [Part 4]

Dr Dennis Vincent Brutus was a Zimbabwean-born South African activist, educator, journalist and poet best known for his campaign to have apartheid South Africa banned from the Olympic Games. His efforts eventually led to the country’s expulsion from the Games in 1970. Following 18 months on Robben Island and another year of house arrest, Brutus and his family were allowed to leave South Africa, settling in London in 1966. In 1970 he moved to the USA, and was granted political asylum in 1983. He was president of the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SAN-ROC).

Dutch Communist Party [Communistische Partij Nederland]

The CPN was founded in 1935 and existed till 1991 when it merged with other political parties. The Working Group South Africa of the Party organised its solidarity work with South Africa and maintained contacts with the national AAMs and international solidarity organisations.

Educators against Racism and Apartheid

Educators against Racism and Apartheid began in 1985 as Educators against Apartheid but it extended its activities to include racism in the USA and changed its name. Besides developing educational materials for schools and publishing a newsletter distributed to educators all over the country; it also organised a boycott of Kellogg’s cereals, appealing to young people. It was active in a campaign to withdraw US teachers’ retirement funds from companies dealing with South Africa.

Evangelical Women’s Group Germany [Evangelische Frauenarbeit in Deutschland - Frauen gegen Apartheid] : [Part 1]

This women’s group of the Protestant churches started its activities in 1977 with a boycott of South African fruit and established Frauen gegen Apartheid. It operated till 1993. It also campaigned against the Krugerrand and bank loans. For 15 years, they organised a vigil every Thursday in front of the South African Consulate.

Foundation X-Y Movement [Stichting X-Y Beweging]

The X-Y Movement started in 1973 and it received its funds from its members. Its main aim was to support liberation movements and work towards international structural change. It was active in boycott campaigns, gave direct support to liberation movements, and organised information activities. It also supported the work of the national AAMs.

Frances E. Williams

Frances E. Williams was a notable African-American actress and activist in Los Angeles from the early 1940s until her death in 1995. As an activist, she was an outspoken advocate for social justice and equality, and her political activism spanned outside her local community to around the world. She was most notably involved in the South African anti-apartheid movement and communist solidarity activities, including the National Anti-Imperialist Movement in Solidarity with African Liberations (NAIMSAL), the Los Angeles Chapter, and Art against Apartheid.

Free South Africa Committee

The Free South Africa Committee operated in Edmonton. It was a community-based organisation that supported the boycott of South Africa and was also involved in direct material support of the liberation movements in South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe. It was especially active in schools in Edmonton.

Hannah Stanton

Hannah Stanton was a missionary and anti-apartheid activist who worked in South Africa and the UK. Following the increased violence and activities of the South African police, culminating in the Sharpeville Massacre of 21 March 1960, she found herself under surveillance. On 30 March 1960 she was arrested and held without charge, and without access to a lawyer until 21 May 1960, when she was deported to the UK. During this time she was held at Pretoria Central Gaol, where she shared a cell with Helen Joseph. After her deportation she became involved in various anti-apartheid campaigns, including those of the AAM.

Hazel Rose Jones

Hazel Rose Jones was a lifelong campaigner for social justice who became a leading activist of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in Australia. In 1960 the Sharpeville massacre impelled Jones to the forefront of anti-apartheid activism. In 1967 she became a founding member of Friends of Africa in Sydney. She joined the Executive Committee of the Southern Africa Defence and Aid Fund (SADAF) in December 1970. She served as both Honorary Secretary of SADAF and of its successor, Community Aid Abroad (Australia) (CAASA).

Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch began in 1978 as Helsinki Watch (HW), a monitoring group of compliance by the former Soviet Union and communist bloc countries with the human rights provision of the 1975 Helsinki Final Act. It later extended its activities to other regions of the world, including Africa. It produces research reports on violations of human rights and pressurises governments and international organisations.

Institute for Security Studies

The ISS has worked with the OAU and has, amongst others, released a CD-ROM containing all OAU Council of Ministers and Summit decisions, declarations and commitments from 1963 to 2001. The CD also contains the key documents for the following regional organisations: SADC, ECOWAS, IGAD and COMESA. It is a work in progress, and will be updated with documents from other sub-regional organisations and more recent documentation, as it becomes available.

Institute of African Studies [Instituto de Estudos Africanos de Rio de Janeiro]

The Institute of African Studies (INEAFRIC) started in 1981 and participated in United Nations activities to support the independence of Namibia and the elimination of apartheid in South Africa. Its work led to the formation of COMAFRICA. It provided academic research and debate in the field of international relations and organised seminars.

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

The ICFTU was an international trade union founded in London in 1949 by unions opposing growing communist control of the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). Its activities on South Africa were organised through the Coordination Committee on Southern Africa and the International Solidarity Fund Committee. ICFTU was dissolved in 2006 when it merged with the World Confederation of Labour (WCL) to form the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC).

International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa Canada : [Part 2]

The International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa Canada (IDAF Canada) operated from 1980-1990. It focused mainly on raising funds to support political prisoners and their families in South Africa and Namibia. US-IDAF executive director Kenneth N. Carstens was instrumental in the establishment of the Canadian IDAF.

International Transport Workers’ Federation : [Part 1]

The International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) is an international trade union federation of transport workers' unions. The ITF was founded in London in 1886 by European Seafarers and Dockers’ union leaders who realised the need to organise internationally against strike breakers. The ITF represents transport workers at world level and promotes their interests through global campaigning and solidarity. It works for the advancement of fundamental human rights and trade union rights and opposes discrimination. The Reports on Africa contains reports on its activities, amongst others, in South Africa.

Irish Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 2]

The Irish AAM was established in 1964 and functioned till 1994. It was co-founded by Kader Asmal (who later became a South African MP and cabinet member) and started with sport, cultural, economic and academic boycotts and grew into an organisation that was active in all areas of anti-apartheid and solidarity. It gave direct support to the liberation movements and worked closely with the ANC. It continues to be active as the Ireland South Africa Association.

Justice

Justice, the British section of the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) was established in 1957 in response to the arrest of people in South Africa in 1956 (which led to the Treason Trial). It sent observers to the trial. It sees itself as an expert, independent body rather than a pressure group and its main aim is to observe the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by securing fair trials, especially political trials of opponents of apartheid.

Karel Roskam : [Part 2]

Karel Roskam was a radio journalist with the progressive broadcaster Vara. He was also a member of Omroep voor Radio Freedom. He produced numerous radio programmes and interviewed many people during the period 1961-1992.

Luthuli Group of Canberra

This local anti-apartheid group organised solidarity campaigns with South Africa and Namibia. It gave direct support to the liberation movements. Exact dates of the organisation's existence are not known.

Madison Anti-Apartheid Coalition

The Madison Anti-Apartheid Coalition started at the Madison Area Committee on Southern Africa and was active from 1968-1992. It was a student organisation at the University of Wisconsin to lobby and educate the community about South Africa, and to support the liberation movements.

Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement was founded in Belgrade in 1961 by countries not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. It focused on national struggles for independence, eradication of poverty and economic development. It supported the liberation movements and took an active stance against apartheid. As of 2012, the movement has 120 members and 17 observer countries.

Organisation of Solidarity with the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America [Organización de Solidaridad con los Pueblos de Asia, Africa y América Latina] : [Part 6]

OSPAAAL was established following the Tricontinental Conference held in Havana, January 1966, to promote "solidarity with the Third World people's struggles, claims and most precious desires". The organisation supported struggles against colonialism and apartheid, and notably produced a large number of brightly coloured propaganda posters to promote its cause.

Peace [Vrede]

Peace was a national organisation that operated from approximately 1971 to 1985. It participated in the boycott campaigns and the activities of the Flemish Anti-Apartheid Coalition (Vlaamse Anti-Apartheid Koalitie - VAAK) and Boycott Apartheid.

Peter Davis : Villon Films

Film producer and director Peter Davis was born and raised in England. He later emigrated to Sweden, and then North America. He became deeply involved in the anti-apartheid movement, and founded Villon Films in 1970. Davis has written, produced, and directed more than 70 documentaries.

Pieter Boersma

Pieter Boersma is an Amsterdam-based photographer who had worked with the national AAMs and the Association of European Parliamentarians for Africa (AWEPAA) for many years. He took photographs of demonstrations and conferences, and visited projects of the ANC in Africa. He also attended numerous international anti-apartheid conferences.

Political Archives : [Part 1]

The Political Archives website is the product of a project sponsored by the Vice-Chancellor's Development Fund (University of London) and run jointly by the Institute of Commonwealth Studies (ICS) and the Institute for the Study of the Americas (ISA). It aims to improve access to and use of their extensive collections of political ephemera. Southern Africa is particularly well represented, with materials from a wide variety of different political parties, trade unions and pressure groups.

Programme to Combat Racism : World Council of Churches : [Part 1]

The Programme to Combat Racism started in 1968 as part of the WCC Programme Unit on Justice and Service. Its aim was to develop policies and programmes contributing to the liberation of victims of racism. Much of its attention and focus was on southern Africa, especially apartheid and the divestment campaign. It established a special fund from which donations to liberation movements were made and to solidarity organisations around the world.

Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History

The Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI), formerly the Marx-Lenin Institute, was established in 1999 as a merger of two other archives, the Russian Centre for the Preservation and Study of Documents of Most Recent History and the Centre for the Preservation of Documents of Youth Organisations. RGASPI contains the archives of the Communist International and includes material about its relations with the Communist Party of South Africa.

South African History Archive

SAHA is a human rights archive located at Constitution Hill, Johannesburg. The Struggles for Justice Programme, though mainly concentrating on South African organisations and people, also contains materials of international AAMs.

Southern Africa Defence and Aid Fund in Australia

The Southern Africa Defence and Aid Fund in Australia (SADAF) was founded in 1963 by a small group of South-African post-Sharpeville refugees and several interested Australians. SADAF’s main aims were to aid and defend the victims of unjust legislation and oppression in South Africa, including support for families and dependents of victims and to keep the conscience of the world alive to the issues at stake. SADAF was affiliated to the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF). In 1981 SADAF was dissolved and reconvened as the Community Aid Abroad Southern Africa (CAASA). Like its predecessor, CAASA maintained close ties with Campaign against Racial Exploitation (CARE). CAASA folded in 1987.

Soviet Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee : [Part 2]

The SKSSAA was the state organisation through which a lot of the Soviet support to the liberation movements was channelled. SKSSAA was active internationally in the struggle against apartheid in South Africa. SKSSAA provided the African National Congress in exile with material resources, such as food, clothes and vehicles. The SKSSAA and other Soviet NGOs received South Africans in need of medical treatment, and arranged stays for them at Soviet hospitals. The organisation also coordinated activities for South African students in the Soviet Union. In 1992 the organisation was renamed Society of Afro-Asian Peoples' Solidarity and Co-operation.

Soviet Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee : [Part 5]

The SKSSAA was the state organisation through which a lot of the Soviet support to the liberation movements was channelled. SKSSAA was active internationally in the struggle against apartheid in South Africa. SKSSAA provided the African National Congress in exile with material resources, such as food, clothes and vehicles. The SKSSAA and other Soviet NGOs received South Africans in need of medical treatment, and arranged stays for them at Soviet hospitals. The organisation also coordinated activities for South African students in the Soviet Union. In 1992 the organisation was renamed Society of Afro-Asian Peoples' Solidarity and Co-operation.

State Archives, The Netherlands [Het Staatsarchief]

The State Archives collection focuses mainly on the Dutch squatter movement, and includes material related to the movement's activities against apartheid. The movement carried out radical actions against companies dealing with South Africa, and operated in a semi-underground manner. The archive is housed at the International Institute for Social History in Amsterdam.

Swiss Anti-Apartheid Movement : French-speaking branch [Mouvement Anti-Apartheid Suisse] : [Part 1]

The Anti-Apartheid Movement of Geneva (MAAG) was founded in 1965 as the French-speaking branch of the national anti-apartheid movement. The organisation changed its name to MAAS in 1970. The initiators of MAAS had mainly a religious background. Both MAAS and its German-speaking sister branch AAB were co-ordinated by a common national committee. MAAS dissolved in 1994.

Swiss Anti-Apartheid Movement : German-speaking branch [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung der Schweiz] : [Part 1]

The Swiss German-speaking branch AAB was established on 1 March 1975 with the secretariat based in Zurich. The AAB organised numerous demonstrations, protest actions, conferences and seminars. Both AAB and its sister branch, MAAS, were co-ordinated by a common national committee. AAB activities were supported by various religious and social organisations. The AAB initiated the establishment of two other organisations, namely the Früchteboykott (Fruit Boycott) and the Aktion Finanzplatz Schweiz-Dritte Welt. The AAB changed its name to AAB Südliches Afrika in 1994, and MAAS dissolved in the same year.

The Road to Democracy in South Africa

'The Road to Democracy in South Africa' is a series of books published by the South African Democratic Education Trust (SADET). Volume 3 is dedicated to the International Solidarity movement and organisations. Volume 5 deals with the African Solidarity movement.

TransAfrica

Transafrica was founded in 1977 as the African American Lobby on Africa and the Caribbean. It worked closely with the Congressional Black Caucus and was active in divestments, boycott and other campaigns. It organised and participated in sit-ins in the office of the South African ambassador in Washington, followed by demonstrations outside South African embassies and consulates, organised by what became the Free South Africa Movement (FSAM).

Uppsala Africa Group

The UAG grew out of the Uppsala South Africa Committee (USAK) which was started in 1963 by the Uppsala Student Union. It reorganised itself in 1968 and became UAG which operated till 1994. It developed into a general membership organisations which also supported the armed struggle.

William Julius Henry 'Joe' Harris : [Part 1]

WJH (Joe) Harris was a carpenter and member of the Queensland branch of the Building Workers' Industrial Union of Australia. He became a freelance journalist writing on the history of the labour movement. He played an active role in, amongst others, the campaign against the South African Springbok Rugby tour.

Women against Apartheid - Frankfurt [Frauen gegen Apartheid - Frankfurt] : [Part 2]

This was a local organisation of women in Frankfurt which formed part of the national Women against Apartheid organisation. Its activities included a boycott campaign against the Krugerrand gold coin and campaigns against banks making loans to South Africa. It also participated in the Outspan fruit boycott, and worked in schools.

Working Group Woman, Church, Twothirds World [Werkgroep Vrouw, Kerk, Tweederde Wereld]

VKW was founded in 1976 by representatives from Christian women’s organisations and continued to operate till 1991. It was a solidarity organisation with women in developing countries and encouraged women in the Netherlands to be active for change. It had a special working group on South Africa and worked especially on practical support to women’s organisations in South Africa and boycott campaigns.

World Campaign against Military and Nuclear Collaboration with South Africa

The World Campaign started in 1977/78 on the initiative of the AAM and the patronage of President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, and was supported by the Special Committee of the UN. It monitored and strengthened the arms embargo against South Africa and exposed military collaborations. It worked closely with the special committee. In the 1980s, it lobbied for expulsion of South Africa from the International Atomic Energy Authority (IAEA). Abdul Minty was the Director from 1979 to 1994.

Broadcasters for Radio Freedom [Omroep voor Radio Freedom]

The OvRF started in 1982 on the initiative of the AABN and mobilised people in the broadcasting sector to support Radio Freedom, the radio station of the ANC. Their aim being to raise financial support to train and equip several broadcasting stations for Radio Freedom. The organisation operated until 1995.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Film Archive

  • ZA UWCRIMA MR-RT-003
  • Collection
  • 1955 - 1995
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

In the mid-1970s, an appeal by IDAF to the exiled community in the United Kingdom led to the gradual retrieval of outstanding amateur film footage - largely unedited 8mm and 16mm material of key events of South African political history. Most of these films and videos were banned in South Africa before 1990. A few relate to the Rivonia Trialists, after their release from prison:
-Generations of resistance I: 1980, produced by United Nations, directed by Peter Davis, 56 min 16mm film. Contains section on the armed struggle and the Rivonia Trial (000766)
-Mandela 70th birthday event, London: 1991, produced by IDAF, 20 min, 13/5 Betacam, 13/8 umatic low band time coded. Contains O R Tambo thanking Anti-Apartheid Movement on behalf of Rivonia prisoners. (000758)
-Free Mandela: produced by IDAF, directed by Barry Feinberg, 20 min, 7/34 umatic BVU. Contains section on adoption of armed struggle and the Rivonia Trial. (000218).

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

Oliver Tambo Papers

The collection has been arranged in four series: A. Personal Documents, B. Office of the President, C. Special Topics, and D. Press Cuttings (not microfilmed).

Only a few records relate indirectly to the Rivonia Trial:
- News clippings from South African and international newspapers concerning the arrest of Nelson Mandela in 1962, his court appearances, and calls for his release from prison (1962 - 1988)
- A letter from the ANC London office concerning the arrests of Mandela and Walter Sisulu
- Reports on campaigns for the release of political prisones
- Correspondence from Mandela, written from Pollsmoor Prison, to Oliver Tambo and a number of other individuals
- Correspondence, reports and messages concerning international support for Mandela’s release from prison. Subjects covered include tributes on his 60th and 70th birthdays, and awards and honours conferred on Mandela, particularly through the work of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement (1984)
- Correspondence and statementsre international calls for Mandela’s release from prison. These include correspondence about a resolution passed by the African Symposium on African Orality in Nigeria and a statement by the President of the Republic of Senegal after Mandela's release.
- Drafts of plays and books on Mandela, including" No Easy Walk to Freedom", "Nelson Mandela and the Rivonia Trial" and "What Is To Be Done"
- Published and unpublished statements and speeches of Mandela, 1962 - 1991
- Biographical notes onMandela

Tambo, Oliver Reginald

Govan Mbeki Papers

Include his songs and music from Robben Island, artefacts such as his beloved guitar with its Island-built case. The collection holds his correspondence, manuscripts of his books, some of which was written on toilet paper and smuggled out of prisons, and a record of his life on the Island and after his release. 'Oom Gov' also gave to the University his own library in a ceremony at his house weeks before he died. Many of the books are those given to him by the authors.

Although most the material does not relate to the Rivonia Trial, this collection has been included as it speaks to the character of one of the Trial's main accused. Rivonia Trial material is: Part One of the State’s Concluding Address at the Rivonia Trial.

Mbeki, Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa

Joel Joffe Papers

Joel Joffe was one of the defence lawyers in the Rivonia Trial. This collection contains a copy of the book written by him on the Rivonia Trial, The Rivonia Story, accompanied by copies of documents in Nelson Mandela's handwriting. The documents include his application for remand in the Pretoria Regional Court on 15 October 1962, a typed account of his speech in the Pretoria Regional Court, first draft of his speech and notes to be used if he was sentenced to death.

Joffe, Joel

South Africa: The Making of US Policy: 1962-1989

This collection provides primary source documents describing U.S. relationships to apartheid including implementation, enforcement, and violations of the U.N-sponsored sanctions against South Africa. Including the following that relate to the Rivonia Trial:
-United States Embassy (South Africa) reports that the African National Congress (ANC) was created to carry out sabotage, stating that the arrest of Nelson Mandela occurred after he planned subversive activities (1962).
-A memorandum issued by the Summit Conference of Independent African States held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (1963), agreeing to provide funding to help South African liberation movements and calling for the release from prison of Nelson Mandela, Robert Sobukwe and all other political prisoners.
-A memorandum on the Rivonia Trial providing biographical information on the Rivonia Trialists, and in which Nelson Mandela argues that opposition groups resorted to armed struggle only after avenues for peaceful change were blocked (1964).
-A report in which ANC and Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) leaders, including Nelson Mandela, Michael Harmel and Walter Sisulu are described as Communists, and documents presented during the Rivonia Trial are cited as evidence of the contacts between the ANC, PAC, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of the People's Republic of China (1964).
-A memorandum of conversation in which Cecil Eprile characterises black leaders like Nelson Mandela as careless and prone to bad judgment (1965).
-A cable relating to Resolution 473 of the United Nations Security Council urging South Africa to release all political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela (1980).
-Biographic sketch information on Nelson Mandela provided by the US Department of State (1983).
-A cable on the awarding of the international Simon Bolivar prize to Nelson Mandela by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) (1983).
-Correspondence to the South African Ambassador to the United States, calling for the release of Nelson Mandela (1984).
- A cable about the Johannesburg Star Newspaper reports that the arrest of Nelson Mandela 25 years ago occurred after he was betrayed by a US Central Intelligence Agency agent posing as a diplomat of the United States Consulate General in Durban (1986).
- A statement in which Chester A. Crocker calls for the release of Nelson Mandela (1986).
- A report in which the US Department of State Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on South Africa asserts that the first steps taken by South Africa must be the release of Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki and all other political prisoners (1987).

The National Security Archive is a non-profit research institute and library providing public access to declassified government documents obtained through the U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). These are then published as declassified document sets (as this one on South Africa), are produced in microfiche, and digitised to become part of the Digital National Security Archive database which some universities subscribe to (Monash University in South Africa).

US State Department

James Kantor Papers

There are legal documents relating to the Rivonia Trial and to Kantor's law firm, personal papers, correspondence and notes from prison, and research and manuscripts for his book. The papers are not fully sorted or listed but some are in numbered folders. They do not necessarily form a collection discrete from other Liliesleaf Farm collections but have been listed as such for ease of reference. Also see entries for Harold and Annemarie Wolpe Papers, Liliesleaf Farm Audio-Visual Collection, Liliesleaf Farm Artefact Collection, Liliesleaf Farm/Rivonia Trial Research Collection.

Legal papers from the Trial include cross examination of Makda in the Rivonia Trial, charges, request by defence for further particulars, replies to request for further particulars by accused #9 and 10, motion to quash the indictment (with ms notes) 26 October 1963, bail application for Kantor and Yutar's reply, Annexure A to the indictment, Annexure B to the indictment, extract of evidence of Kantor. Also Yutar's reply to application to quash, bail application for Kantor and for Bernstein, judgment on bail application (p.1-90 and p.140-144 missing), comments on the evidence by Sergeant C D van Rensburg and Lieutenant Victor, statements by Berman, Fine, Greef, Tlale, Van Niekerk, Williams.

Financial statements from Kantor, Zwarenstein and Partners Law Firm. Payments shown by Kathrada, Wolpe, Hodgson, Ezra. Shows deposit for Liliesleaf Farm. Also other legal documents including transfer of Liliesleaf Farm in November 1961 from D B Fyfe to Novian Pty Limited. Also, a copy of letter from Kantor to staff at his law firm that he had to close it due to the Trial

Personal documents of James Kantor: passport, Defence Force Card, handwritten statement entitled "Details of my trip to Liliesleaf Farm" (5 pages with diagram of farm), personal history and career summary, correspondence (including from prison while being tried), will and other personal papers. Handwritten biographies of Trialists apparently written for Kantor while they were in prison during the trial (laminated), notes written in prison during the trial some on scraps of a chocolate box. One note reads: "Welcome! If that's the right word. What the hell are you doing here? You should be out defending us. Here's a pencil. Guard it with your life. It's worth its weight in gold"

Original typed manuscript for book "A Healthy Grave", various versions of this book some with manuscript additions sometimes called "The Reluctant Revolutionary", research for the book.

Articles: "Introduction to demolition and theory of explosives", newspaper clippings about Wolpe and Goldreich's escape.

These papers do not necessarily form a collection discrete from other Liliesleaf Farm collections but have been listed as such for ease of reference. Also see entries for Harold and Annemarie Wolpe Papers, Liliesleaf Farm Audio-Visual Collection, Liliesleaf Farm Artefact Collection, Liliesleaf Farm/Rivonia Trial Research Collection, Percy Yutar Papers.

Rivonia Trial

Records of the State vs. Nelson Mandela and nine others. Microfilm, 35 mm. Originals in South African Institute of Race Relations Archive at University of Witwatersrand (see AD1844). The microfilm is identical to the set of records at Wits and is missing the same volumes. Includes charge sheets, the indictment, opening address, statements, evidence, evaluation of evidence and exhibits, bail applications, sentencing. An important section of the collection relates to preparation of the defence as this was the defence team's set of records pertaining to the trial.

Department of Justice

The State versus Nelson Mandela and Nine Others

  • ZA ASC-UNISA MR-RT-028
  • Collection
  • 1963 - 1964
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

In Special Collections section of the UNISA Library. The records of the Supreme Court of South Africa (Transvaal Provincial Division) on the proceedings of the Rivonia Trial. The collection contains: Indictment: Annexures and Opening address (1 volume); State's Concluding Address (volumes 1-4): vol.1: A factual analysis of the documentary exhibits handed in and of the oral testimony given, by the state witnesses, vol.2: The persons who were parties to the conspiracy and the implementation thereof, vol.3: n Kritiese ontleding van sekere dokumentere bewysstukke, vol.4: A factual analysis of the defence case and of the further documentary exhibits produced in the course thereof; and Judgment and Sentence (1 volume).

Department of Justice

Episcopal Church People for Southern Africa

Rivonia Trial materials include:
Unit 66 Ref 0398
-News clippings in English from newspapers in the US and UK concerning the situation in South Africa during the 1960's
-Text of Nelson Mandela's Rivonia Trial speech published by Christian Action and printed by A G Bishop & Sons Ltd (Kent, UK)

Unit 85 Ref 0494
-Correspondence on "Free Mandela" appeals from the Committee of Southern Africa and responses from the US Department of State
-Correspondence on "Free Mandela" appeals from Centre against Apartheid
-Correspondence "Free Mandela" appeals from Africa Resource Center (CA, USA)
-Correspondence "Free Mandela" appeals from General Theological Seminary (NY, USA)
-Correspondence from The Episcopal Churchmen for Southern Africa (NY, USA) to among others, the US President, advocating for freeing of South African and Namibia political prisoners
-Several leaflet copies of the "Free Mandela" campaign
-Text of Nelson Mandela's Rivonia Trial speech published by Christian Action and printed by A G Bishop & Sons Ltd (Kent, UK)
-News clippings on Mrs. Helen Suzman's visit of Robben Island and meeting Mr. Nelson Mandela and Mr. Toivo Ja Toivo, restricted family visits by Winnie Mandela, free Mandela campaigns conducted both in South Africa and around the world.

Episcopal Churchmen For South Africa

Freedom Park Oral History Collection

Freedom Park has conducted oral history interviews with many veterans of the struggle for freedom in South Africa, including with the remaining veterans of the Rivonia Trial. Transcription in progress.

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Records of the Foreign Office: Export of Arms to South Africa: Internal Security Operations: Rivonia Sabotage Trial of ANC Leaders

These records fall under: Foreign Office: Political Departments: General Correspondence; Africa, West and Central (J): South Africa (JS) subseries.

Contains records on Rivonia Sabotage Trial of ANC leaders, including:
-The trial and sentencing of Constable Johannes Arnoldus Greef for his role on helping Arthur Goldreich to escape (newspaper article)
-Report on the substance of O.R. Tambo to the U.N. special committee about people accused of sabotage (9 October 1963)
-Report on the proceedings of the Rivonia trial (press reports)
-222 Acts of sabotage between 10 August 1961 and 1963 (article from the Star newspaper 9 October 1963)
-Moves to raise Pretoria trial issue at U.N. (article from the Star, 10 October 1963)
-Conversation with Bram Fischer about the Rivonia trial
-Letter from Durossil to the Foreign Office, London (19 October 1963)
-De Wet quashed indictment "The Rivonia trial collapses" (articles from the Rand Daily Mail, 30 October 1963)

UK Foreign Office

Records of the Foreign Office: Rivonia Trial

These records fall under: Foreign Office: Political Departments: General Correspondence; African, West and Central (J): South Africa (JS) subseries.

Contains:
Correspondence from the Nigerian diplomats on various British expatriates working at universities and hospitals who will resign from their positions if Nelson Mandela is sentenced to death (29 May 1963).

It was not possible to verify the existence of these records at the time of this audit.

UK Foreign Office

South African Political Papers of His Honour Judge Kellock

The material includes fragments of the Rivonia Trial Transcript concerning the details of the charges; news sheets and press releases about the Rivonia Trial; a statement by Kellock on the Trial; information sheets on South African legislation; minutes and circulars from the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners. Other material includes Anti-Apartheid Movement correspondence, and national and executive committee meeting minutes for 1965 - 1966; correspondence relating to the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee and its officials; and papers relating to the Nyasaland emergency of 1959.

Judge Kellock, (formerly Mr. Thomas Oslaf Kellock, Q.C.) was Chairman of the National Committee of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in Britain from 1963-65. This group of papers is mostly concerned with the period when Mr. Kellock was sent to South Africa by Christian Action to act as an observer for the Defence and Aid Fund at the Rivonia Trial in 1964.

Kellock, Thomas Oslaf

Tanganyika Standard

Articles on South Africa in Tanzanian daily newspaper, 1963. Include the following related to the Rivonia Trial:
-Four escape S.A. police
-Escape trio on way
-Cell guards coshed in escape - police: SA. Exits watched
-Mystery fire at airport delays Goldreich's arrival in Dar
-Escapers due in second freedom flight
-Airline doubts over safety: EAA recalls rescue plane: flight to Mbeya
-Goldreich and Wolpe fly out: Stops in Federal territory avoided
-ANC fearful of another kidnap plot
-Goldreich and Wolpe "evil traitors"

Tanganyika Standard

Rivonia Trial Records

Contains papers relating to Rivonia Trial made available by Joel Joffe. Copies housed in the Bram Fischer Library. Originals at Historical Papers, University of Witwatersrand, A2519 Nelson Mandela Papers: Handwritten speeches and papers by Nelson Mandela for the Pretoria Regional Court Trial (1962) and the Rivonia Trial (1963-1964). The collection includes further notes by Nelson Mandela for his defence; the application for the remand of the trial; an application challenging the right of the court to try him and his preparatory notes. Rivonia Trial records are a typed copy of Mandela's statement from the dock (signed); final clause of statement from the dock (manuscript); notes that Mandela intended to use if he were sentenced to death when asked if he had anything to say (manuscript).

Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla

South African Newspaper Collection

Collection of South African newspapers. Focus is newspapers from Johannesburg, Pretoria and surrounds. Collection includes coverage of the transfer of Mandela to Pretoria before the Trail, the arrests, Rivonia Trial, sentencing etc. Request relevant dates or publications. Newspapers which covered the trial extensively include Sunday Times, Pretoria News, Rand Daily Mail, Die Vaderland etc.

National Library of South Africa

Bob Hepple Papers

An article on the Rivonia Trial written by Bob Hepple, including notes on his arrest, solitary confinement interrogation and escape.

Hepple, Bob

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers: Mandela Vigil St Paul's June 1964

Correspondence (June 1964) concerning the vigils held at St Paul's and outside the South African embassy in London to coincide with the sentencing of the Rivonia trialists. Correspondents includes Canon Collins, Manuela Sykes, Dorothy Robison, Archbishop of Canterbury. Campaigns by Christian Action and the Anti- Apartheid Movement. Lists of suggested contacts in connection with the vigil.

Not available for inspection at time of this audit.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers: Rivonia Trial

  • ZA UWCRIMA MR-RT-081
  • Collection
  • 1963 - 1989
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

File: Rivonia Trial correspondence, statements, finance etc:
-Correspondence by Bram Fischer to Canon Collins and vice versa re: the guilty verdict and responding to the messages of sympathy on death of Molly Fischer.

File: Rivonia Trial 1963-1964
-Walter Sisulu statement on which his evidence was led with handwritten annotations
-Press clippings
-Walter Sisulu: extracts of evidence: Examination by Bram Fischer and cross examination by Percy Yutar
-Extracts of evidence by Govan Mbeki
-Notes made by Govan Mbeki regarding his interrogation whilst under 90 day detention.
-Ahmed Kathrada: extract of evidence examination by Vernon Berrange
-Elias Motsoaledi statement at the Trial
-Lionel Bernstein extracts of some evidence: cross examination by Percy Yuter
-Pamphlet entitled " My fight is for all: Mandela tells court of ANC objectives" extracts of Mandela's statement from the dock as printed by the Rand Daily Mail

File: Collins2/6 mainly concerning the Rivonia Trial (1964):
-Handwritten notes
-Correspondence . Correspondence include Freda Nuell, J Hadebe, Canon Collins, E.S. Reddy, Hugh Lewin, Joel Joffe Raymond Kunene, Rica Hogdson
-Typescript- biography of Nelson Mandela
-Draft articles concerning the imprisonment of Mandela and the Rivonia Trialists
-Rivonia Trial - statements of accounts and annexure of monies received
-Decision by Trialists not to appeal against their sentence
-Statements against the Rivonia Trial sentences by Canon Collins and others
-Christian Action article entitled " Mandela: a message from prison"
-Press statements on the sentence issued by the Africa Bureau and by Canon Collins
-Correspondence concerning the sentencing
-Typescript of Mandela statement from the dock " Why I am ready to die" with original annotations
-Articles on the Rivonia Trial
-Statement issued by Mr. Tom Kellosk at a press conference called by Christian Action January 15 1964 concerning the Rivonia Trial
-Statement by Canon Collins on behalf of Christian Action
-Anti- Apartheid Movement profile of Mandela and reproductive extracts from his statement from the dock
-Notes for adverts and letters re: Rivonia Trial

Also includes:
-Typescripts of draft articles on the Rivonia Trial some of them written by E.S. (Solly) Sachs
-A pamphlet entitled the " Message of Rivonia"

Not available for inspection at time of this audit.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers: Bram Fischer

-File on Bram Fischer. It is unclear whether this file has to do with Bram Fischer's involvement in the Rivonia Trial or his own subsequent trial.

Not available for inspection at time of this audit

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers: Biographical notes on Rivonia Trialists

Part of International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers. Biographical notes on some of the people persecuted by the South African government for their opposition to the policies of apartheid, 30 May 1964. The list includes Nelson Mandela and other Rivonia trialists.

Available for inspection at time of audit.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

Liberal Party of South Africa Collection

Special topics/memoranda: State vs. Nelson Mandela and others. Section SV6 of the trial. Contains evidence and address in mitigation of sentence where Alan Paton is examined first by Mr Hanson for the Defence and then by Dr Yutar for the State (12 June 1964). Also description of Alan Paton 's evidence and address (seems to be a typed chapter from a book).

Liberal Party

Benjamin Pogrund Papers

Benjamin Pogrund was a journalist. The collection includes correspondence, telexes, memoranda, press cuttings, printed items re the Rand Daily Mail, black rights and attitudes, riots, political prisoners, apartheid, the homelands, labour legislation, race relations, the Schlebusch Commission, treason trials, detentions, bannings, forced removals, labour, education and trade unions. See I3.1 for 2 files related to the Rivonia Trial: Index to witnesses and The State vs. Abram Fischer and Others.

Pogrund, Benjamin

Helen Suzman Papers

Correspondence, diaries, articles, speeches, photographs, notes, press clippings and printed items relating to her years in parliament as an opposition MP. Subjects are detentions, bannings, restrictions, political prisoners, removals, homelands, urbanisation, labour, women, education, health and social welfare, politics, economics and Namibia. There is no direct reference to the Rivonia Trial but there are records related to prison conditions at Robben Island and Pretoria Central (where the trialists were incarcerated) in 1960s, 70s and 80s (Aa1.2.1, Aa4.1, Ab5). Records include correspondence with relevant authorities and Suzman's own personal notes from visits. Also newspaper report ten years since Rivonia Trial (Aa4.1), and other press cuttings re prison conditions (Aa9). Also correspondence with indirect references to Denis Goldberg (Ab1.1, Ab1.2).

Suzman, Helen

Records of the American Committee on Africa (ACOA)

35mm. Originals at the Amistad Research Centre, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Documents the pioneering anti-apartheid group in the US from its establishment in the 1950s. Reels related to Rivonia Trial are:
4:0827: Campaign against South African Apartheid: Memos, draft letters to and lists of sponsors, resolutions and declarations, flyers, clippings and notes 1963 (1960-1964). 87 frames. Major topics: Appeal for action against Apartheid, Rivonia arrests and trials, international boycott of South African goods etc.
15:1071: 108/5: African National Congress Pamphlets. 27 frame. Includes 1072: South African on Trial: Behind the Rivonia Case (no date). 13 frames.
22:1205: 111/12. Mandela, Nelson (ca. 1964). 31 frames. Major topic: Rivonia trial.
41:0798: 118/35. World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners: Rivonia Trial: Newsletters, statements, press releases, brochure (1963-1964). 31 frames.
42:0784: 119/23. Writings: Chief Albert Luthuli (1957 and 1964). 9 frames. Major topics: Racial situation, Rivonia trial, ANC.
42:0841: 119/26. Writings: Nelson Mandela (1961 and 1964). 70 frames. Major topics: 1961 Stay-at-home demonstration, Rivonia trial.

American Committee on Africa

Jack and Ray Simons Papers

This extensive collection reflects the immense contribution made by the Simons' to the political, trade union and intellectual life of South Africa. F9.3 Trials: Treason and terrorism, 1957-1989 has one item related to the Rivonia: an ANC booklet entitled "South Africa on Trial: Behind the Rivonia Case." It outlines the trial, the history of the case, defendants' biographies. The aim was to encourage pressure not to impose the death penalty. It was printed in the UK. A further item may be related to the Rivonia Trial or to previous trials (it is undated): Typed notes (with manuscript additions) on High Treason and the South African Law.

Simons, Jack

Colin Purkey Papers

Correspondence, memoranda, reports, minutes, interviews, photographs and posters relating to the following organisations: Black Sash, Detainees' Parents Support Committee, End Conscription Campaign, Institute for a Democratic Alternative in South Africa, Jews for Social Justice, Johannesburg Democratic Action Committee, Mass Democratic Movement, National Education Union of South Africa, National Education Crisis Committee, NUSAS and the United Democratic Front.
Subjects are Namibia, education, trade unions, women, detentions, protest theatre and the Black liberation struggle. B. Political Organisations include Mandela's statement from the dock at the Rivonia Trial (B11.8.3).

Records of the Garment Workers Union

Minutes, correspondence, memoranda, printed items (including the Garment Worker), press clippings and photographs relating to the Garment Workers Union and its predecessor, the Witwatersrand Tailors Association. One paragraph in one item mentions the Rivonia Trial in Bba2.2.11 General correspondence 1951-1973. It is contained in a letter written by Violet Weinberg to Anna Scheepers re Weinberg's dismissal from the Industrial Council for the Clothing Industry (August 1964). Weinberg voices disagreement with Scheepers on a number of political and union-related points. It is in this context that political developments like the Trial are mentioned.

Garment Workers Union (GWU)

South African Police Museum and Archives Collection

The Museum contains evidence and documentation related to high profile police investigations. Rivonia Trial material is as follows:
Artefacts taken as evidence during the raid on Liliesleaf Farm:
-Three duplication machines (Roneo 750)
-Two radio transmitters
-Typewriter
Incomplete. These came to the Museum from John Vorster Square Police Station. They were then transferred back to the Police Station. When they were finally returned to the Museum, some artefacts and evidence was missing.

Archival files contain:
-One page on artefacts and their significance when transferred from John Vorster Square Police Station to the Museum in 1984.
-Labels from artefact evidence
-Pamphlets collected as evidence
-Instruction manual for duplication machine
-Press clippings from trial
-State's Concluding Address III (Afrikaans)
All 639.29-2/2A

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