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Congress of Democrats

Correspondence, minutes, regional and branch news, publications and reports of the Congress of Democrats
Subjects covered include:
Attempts to solicit support for a National Convention in opposition to the inauguration of South Africa
as a Republic. Nelson Mandela’s participation in the PAFMECSA conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 1962. Public meetings and demonstrations, protesting the arrest of Nelson Mandela in 1962. The inauguration of the Republic of South Africa. Biographical profiles of Nelson Mandela.

Turok, Ben

Trial- State vs. Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela’s charges of inciting workers to strike and for leaving South Africa without a valid travel document. Includes a request for further particulars and a reply, application for postponement, exhibits, the statement made by Nelson Mandela, correspondence and press cuttings. Mainly photocopies.

Arrivals for the Mandela Trial

Mr. Nelson Mandela former Transvaal president of the banned African National Congress, appeared in court on charges of incitement and leaving South Africa illegally. The trial transferred from Johannesburg to Pretoria on security grounds. The trial was adjourned for a week to give Mr. Mandela time to appoint defense counsel. Mr Mandela was remanded in custody. Mr Mandela was dressed in tribal dress. Attending the trial was his wife, Mrs. Winnie Mandela and his sister, Ms Leabi Mandela. The courtroom packed with supporters of Mr. Mandela, Mr Mandela that his counsel was unable to appear for him because he was confined to Johannesburg under the suppression of Communism act. Mr. Mandela said the sudden transfer of the trial to Pretoria had deprived him of his attorney services. 17 October 1962

National Archives United Kingdom

Terrorism trial of Essop et al. Report ( 1972)
Arrest of Moumbaris et al- Report (1972)
Ahmed Timol inquest - Report (1972)
Release from Robben Island of M.D. Naidoo after having served his five-year sentence- Report (1972) Winnie Mandela breaking banning orders- Correspondence ( 28 April 1972) Mrs. Winnie Mandela' s brother in law had bought her groceries for her, when she went to the door to fetch them she was arrested for contravening her banning order : Mrs. Mandela wins appeal over grocery list case. Newspaper article from The Time London ( 26 April 1976).Prisoners study privileged. Correspondence from Lord Lothian to Dennis Healy (25 February 1972)
South Africa n government refusal to give Shantie Naidoo ' a passport to leave the country and refers it her refusal to testify against Winnie Mandela. Report from the U. N. Unit on Apartheid ( January 1972) Refusal for permission to study. Correspondence from the Commissioner of Prisons (Steyn) to the British Ambassador Arthur Shelley ( February 1972)

National Archives United Kingdom

Closing case against Nelson Mandela (includes information that Mr. L.J. Blom-Cooper from Amnesty saw the magistrate leaving for lunch with the Security Branch in their car. This led to Nelson Mandela to call the magistrate to recuse himself from the trial but he refused. Confidential report from the British embassy. ( 26 October1962). Nelson Mandela's trial. Report from British embassy. Arrest of Nelson Mandela (including biographical details)
Report from the British embassy, Pretoria to the Foreign office, London.

British Embassy, Pretoria

Eli Weinberg Collection

Collection of photographs covering Nelson Mandela's role in some of the major political events of the 1950s and early 1960s period. The collection has documents on Anti-pass law demonstrations and the Defiance Campaign. The collection also includes a series of photographs of the wedding of Nelson and Winnie Mandela, and various portraits of Nelson Mandela.

Weinberg, Eli

National Archives United Kingdom

David Astor correspondence to the British Ambassador Sir John Maud thanking him for helping him to get the books to Nelson Mandela (13 October 1962.) John Maud’s correspondence to David Astor confirming receipt the of Nelson Mandela letter's receiving the books (4 October 1962). Enclosed is a receipt from Nelson Mandela for the books (2 October 1962). Hand written note from Nelson Mandela confirming that he received the books via the embassy (14 September 1962). Correspondence from the resident commissioner , Mafikeng to the High commission, Cape Town. Nelson Mandela travels ( 20 January 1962). Correspondence from the High Commission in Cape Town to the Secretary of State Colonies. Arrival of Mandela in Lobatse and a charter to fly him to Tanganyika paid by a bank in Dar es Salaam (22 January 1962)

Astor, David

National Archives United Kingdom

Death sentence in Rivonia trial "unlikely"
Note (4 June 1964)
Upcoming judgment and sentence in the Rivonia trial
Note (2 June 1964)
The Australian representative to South Africa has been instructed to register his government's concern over the Rivonia trial.
Note (9 June 1964)
U.K. should abstain in the vote on the Rivonia resolution by Ivory Coast and Morocco unless is amended ( Add as that America will also abstain)
Note ( 10 June 1964)
Verdicts in the Rivonia trial
Telegram (11 June 1964)
Analysis of evidence at the Rivonia trial
Report ( 10 June 1964)
Decision to defer any attempt by the U.S. to get a reduction in Rivonia trail sentences until the defence has lodged an appeal.
Note ( 14 June 1964)
Unsigned copy of the Rivonia trial judgment
Judgment: Rivonia trial (15 June 1964)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Pamphlets calling for the release of the Rivonia Trialists (international)
Campaigns to save lives of the Rivonia Trialists- Anti Apartheid Movement
Original letter dated 5/11/1962 from Nelson Mandela to Canon Collins, acknowledging support
received from Christian Action. News clippings and campaign material re: Mandela's 5 year prison sentence. Nelson Mandela's testimony at his first trial, 1962 in which he talks extensively about his African trip. Copies and pamphlets calling for 3 day strike in 1961. Newsclippings from Observer, November 1962 re: Nelson Mandela's sentencing to 5 years in prison.
State versus Nelson Mandela 1962: main count particulars to the charge, list of publications,
documents and pamphlets presented as evidence, 1st alternative charge, 2nd alternative charge. Letter to the chief magistrate 16 October 1962 from Kantor Zwarenstein and partners re: conduct
by members of staff concerning State versus Nelson Mandela trial. Correspondence between Harold Wolpe and Canon Collins, October 1962 Correspondence with Canon Collins re: account in the Mandela trial. Correspondence include Ruth Finkelstein, Alex Hepple
Correspondence concerning the trial (Harold Wolpe)
Application for a remand of the trial for two weeks due to Adv. Slovo not being able to present because of his banning orders, 1962
Explanation of charge against Mandela
Extracts from Canon Collins chairperson's report at the AGM of Christian Action, November 1962, where he talks the betrayal of Nelson Mandela the remarkable Black Pimpernel Letters to the editor of the Times, London and the Guardian 1962 concerning the imprisonment of
Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu
Press statement issued by the Anti- Apartheid Movement August 1962 calling for messages of
support to be sent to Nelson Mandela.
Pamphlet with Mandela's call for a three day stay away, on behalf of the National Action Council
Draft biographical sketch of Nelson Mandela
All in African National Action Council- appeal to the people of South West Africa, written by Mandela
on behalf of NAC.
As above: appeal to students and scholars
As above: to members of the Transkei Territorial Authority

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Legal proceedings concerning the State versus Nelson Mandela in 1962. These material include an application for the remand of the trial due to Advocate Joe Slovo not being present because of his banning orders, the main count, an explanation of the charge against Nelson Mandela particulars to the charge, a list of publications, documents and pamphlets presented as evidence, the first alternative charge, the second alternative charge and Nelson Mandela's testimony in which he refers extensively to his Africa trip.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

Records of the Foreign Office: Export of Arms to South Africa: Internal Security Operations: Rivonia Sabotage Trial of ANC Leaders

These records fall under: Foreign Office: Political Departments: General Correspondence; Africa, West and Central (J): South Africa (JS) subseries.

Contains:
-The escape of Bob Hepple (telegram, 28 November 1963)
-Prison conditions with affidavits from Bernstein, Goldberg, Motsoaledi, Mbeki, Kathrada and Sisulu (report, 21 November 1963)
-Newspaper articles on the Rivonia trial (November and December 1963)
-Note from Mitford to the British Consulate General requesting that political trials that might seriously impact the Rivonia Trial to be closely monitored (5 December 1963)
-Visit by John Arnold Q.C. a leading conservative barrister in London (includes a summary of proceedings, 13 December 1963)
-Arrest, assault and torture of Isaac Tlale of the ANC at the hands of security police who wanted him to testify against the Rivonia accused. Police claimed to him that Joe Slovo bought Mandela and Sisulu with money from the communists (report/affidavit, no date)
-Report of John Arnold Q.C. at the International Commission of Jurists on his visit to South Africa and includes a comment that he believed the Rivonia trial judge was fair and partial (16 December 1963)
-Nelson Mandela's life sentence: reactions (1963)
-Foreign reaction to the Rivonia trial judgment and sentences
-Statement in parliament by H.F. Verwoerd (16 June 1964)
-Rivonia trial judgment (correspondence and press cuttings)
-Rivonia trial sentence (summary from press articles 1964)
-Question whether the British government should ask the South African government to reduce the life sentences handed down in the Rivonia trial (Correspondence, 26 June 1964)
-Libyan embassy in London will ask the UK secretary of state to intervene and have the Rivonia trial life sentences reduced (report, 15 June 1964)
-The U.S. state department will not ask for a reduction in the Rivonia trial (correspondence Internal British foreign office, (27 June 1964)
-Secretary of the state talking about the Rivonia (speech house of Commons, July 1964)
-The Canadian Ambassador asks that the Rivonia trial sentences be reduced (report, 22 July 1964)
-Rivonia trial accused decide not to appeal (report, 27 July 1964)
-The German government approaches South Africa about the Rivonia trial sentences (report, 2 September 1964)
-Book on Rivonia trial by Judge De Villiers (Report 24 September 1964)
-Death sentence in Rivonia trial "unlikely" (note, 4 June 1964)
-Upcoming judgement and sentence in the Rivonia trial (note , 2 June 1964)
-The Australian representative to South Africa has been instructed to register his government's concern over the Rivonia trial (note, 9 June 1964)
-U.K. should abstain in the vote on the Rivonia resolution by Ivory Coast and Morocco unless is amended (America will also abstain) (note, 10 June 1964)
-Verdicts in Rivonia Trial (telegram, 11 June 1964)
-Analysis of evidence at the Rivonia Trial (report, 10 June 1964)
-Decision to defer any attempt by the U.S. to get a reduction in Rivonia Trial sentences until the defence has lodged an appeal (note, 14 June 1964)
-Unsigned copy of the Rivonia trial judgement (15 June 1964)

UK Foreign Office

Rivonia Trial: Quartus De Wet/Bram Fischer/Dr Percy Yutar

SABC English Service broadcast. Recordings of the proceedings during the Rivonia Trial. Includes recordings of Judge President Quartus De Wet, the prosecutor Dr Percy Yutar and counsel for the defence Bram Fischer. Mandela appears as Accused number 1. Dated 3 December 1963.

South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC)

The Nationalist (Tanzanian newspaper)

1964, Race war in S.A. imminent
S Africa accuses UThant of partiality. Churches urged to act on South Africa. Widespread police raids follow Job bombing. ANC praises Mwalimu's stand on South Africa. Freedom leader asks for S.A. action including the release of Nelson Mandela, South African issue, South African police resume raids on Cape Town Homes increased prison repression on political prisoners. We regret to announce their deaths, Vuyisile Mini, Wilson Khayingo, Zinakile Mkaba ( Dulcie et decorum) Hanged in Pretoria.

Nationalist

United Nations Special Committee on Policies of Apartheid

Letter/leaflet dated 13 August 1963 from the African National Congress in reply to the South African police statement that the African National Congress has been smashed. Enclosure mentions that the ANC is Alive, demands that South African leaders must be freed- free Mandela, free Sisulu, free Mbeki, free Sobukwe, free Kathrada. Deals with the Treason trial, the Rivonia trial includes Newsclippings from the Guardian, London and the Observer.

United Nations Special Committe on Policies of Apartheid

Masemola, Japhta

Statement to police by former Robben Island political prisoner, Japhta Masemola dated 22-04-1963
and photographs.

Masemola, Japhta

Mandela -196+

English Service Actuality Rivonia Trial- Quartus De Wet/ Bram Fischer/Dr Percy Yutar
Recordings of the proceedings during the Rivonia trial sabotage Trial with actuality by the Judge president Quartus De Wet, the public prosecutor, Percy Yutar and counsel for defence, Bram Fischer. Mandela appears as accused no.1.

RECORDBC 19631203

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Records of ANC Morogoro Office

Four publications relate to the Rivonia Trial:
-On Trial for Their Lives, Mary Benson, 1965
-Reasons for Plunging South Africa into Guerrilla Warfare, Walter Sisulu, 1964
-On Violence in South Africa, Ahmed Kathrada, 1964
(all Box 18, folder 167)
-An Afrikaner against Apartheid, Bram Fischer, 1966 (Box 8, folder 69)

African National Congress (ANC) Morogoro Office

Records of the Foreign Office: Export of Arms to South Africa: Internal Security Operations: Rivonia Sabotage Trial of ANC Leaders

These records fall under: Foreign Office: Political Departments: General Correspondence; Africa, West and Central (J): South Africa (JS) subseries.

Contains records on Rivonia Sabotage Trial of ANC leaders, including:
-The trial and sentencing of Constable Johannes Arnoldus Greef for his role on helping Arthur Goldreich to escape (newspaper article)
-Report on the substance of O.R. Tambo to the U.N. special committee about people accused of sabotage (9 October 1963)
-Report on the proceedings of the Rivonia trial (press reports)
-222 Acts of sabotage between 10 August 1961 and 1963 (article from the Star newspaper 9 October 1963)
-Moves to raise Pretoria trial issue at U.N. (article from the Star, 10 October 1963)
-Conversation with Bram Fischer about the Rivonia trial
-Letter from Durossil to the Foreign Office, London (19 October 1963)
-De Wet quashed indictment "The Rivonia trial collapses" (articles from the Rand Daily Mail, 30 October 1963)

UK Foreign Office

Tanganyika Standard

Articles on South Africa in Tanzanian daily newspaper, 1963. Include the following related to the Rivonia Trial:
-Four escape S.A. police
-Escape trio on way
-Cell guards coshed in escape - police: SA. Exits watched
-Mystery fire at airport delays Goldreich's arrival in Dar
-Escapers due in second freedom flight
-Airline doubts over safety: EAA recalls rescue plane: flight to Mbeya
-Goldreich and Wolpe fly out: Stops in Federal territory avoided
-ANC fearful of another kidnap plot
-Goldreich and Wolpe "evil traitors"

Tanganyika Standard

National Intelligence Agency Archive

Inventory accessed contains one manuscript (bound photocopy in three parts) in Nelson Mandela's handwriting: "How to be a Good Communist; Dialectical Materialism; Political Economy". Preceding the manuscript are two pages from Mandela's Statement from the Dock (pages 45 and 46) and a photocopy of a sub-file indicating what the manuscript is about and that is was seizd at Rivonia.

There may be other records related to the Rivonia Trial in this archive

Untitled

National Archives United Kingdom

The Summary of the opening of the trial against Neville Alexander et all. Report (13 November 1963)
The escape of Bob Hepple. Telegram ( 28 November 1963. Prison conditions with affidavits from Bernstein, Goldberg, Motsoaledi, Mbeki, Kathrada and Sisulu. Report (21 November 1963. Rivonia trial Newspaper articles (November 1963). Note from Mitford to the British consulate general requesting for political trials that might seriously affect the Rivonia trial closely monitored. Note ( 5 December 1963). Visit by John Arnold Q.C. a leading conservative barrister in London ( includes a summary of proceedings). Report (13 December 1963). Arrest, assault and torture of Isaac Tale of the ANC at the hands of security police who wanted him to testify against the Rivonia accused. Police claimed to him that Joe Slovo bought Nelson Mandela and Sisulu with money from the communists. Report/Affidavit ( no date) Report of John Arnold Q.C. at the international commission of Jurists on his visit to South Africa and includes a comment that he believed the Rivonia trial judge was fair and partial. Report (16 December 1963). Rivonia trial. Various news articles ( December 1963)

National Archives United Kingdom

Correspondence from the Nigerian diplomats on various British expatriates working at universities and hospitals who promise to resign from their positions if Nelson Mandela is sentenced to death.
Correspondence (29 May 1963)

Press Articles

Mandela -196+

English Service Class Actuality Program Rivonia Trial - A short summary of the Rivonia Trial case the verdict and the passing of sentences by Judge president Quartus de Wet.

RECORD BC 19640611

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

National Archives United Kingdom

Embassy's role in getting books from Astor to Mandela "In the long run we may get some goodwill from Nelson Mandela for having helped him. Letter from Dunrossil, British Embassy in Pretoria. (7 December 1962). Rev. Charles Hooper in Swaziland was taking care of sons of Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu. Confidential note from Major Steward. House arrest papers served on Ahmed Kathrada for attending the Nelson Mandela trial and then ordered to immediately return to Johannesburg. Includes a copy of Mandela's opening remarks (23 October 1962). Sabotage attempts in and around Durban thought likely to be the " Free Mandela Campaign Telegram 18 October 1962.

British Embassy, Pretoria

National Archives United Kingdom

The trial and sentencing of Constable Johannes Arnoldus Greef for his role on helping Arthur Goldreich to escape. Newspaper article. Report on the substance of O.R. Tambo to the U.N. special committee about people accused of sabotage . Report 9 October 1963. Report on the proceedings of the Rivonia trial. Press reports. 222 Acts of sabotage between 10 August 1961 and 1963. Article from the Star (9 October 1963). Moves to raise Pretoria trial issue at U.N. Article from the Star ( 10 October 1963). Conversation with Bram Fischer about the Rivonia trial. Letter from Durossil to the Foreign Office, London ( 19 October 1963). De Wet quashed indictment "The Rivonia trial collapses.
Articles from the Rand Daily Mail. ( 30 October 1963)

Rand Daily Mail

The Tanganyika Standard (Daily Newspaper in Tanzania )

Newspaper articles on South Africa 1963
Hard bargaining between western powers and South African States: Arms embargo on South Africa. Liberation a burden for all Africa, More arms support arms embargo to South Africa, End trading with South Africa Nyerere, South Africa urged to heed U.N. and strive for racial harmony: Uthant attacks apartheid, S.A. on brink of disaster, Four escape S.A. police, Escape trio on way, Cell guards coshed in escape - police: SA. Exits watched, Expel S. Africa call to U.N.: Arms blockade suggested, Mystery fire at airport delays Goldreich's arrival in Dar, Escapers due in second freedom flight, Airline doubts over safety: EAA recalls rescue plane: flight To Mbeya, Goldreich and Wolpe fly out: Stops in Federal territory avoided, ANC fearful of another kidnap plot, Beware of the avalanche South Africa told. The Hodgsons in Tanganyika and fighting on, Goldreich and Wolpe "evil traitors, Scandinavians give Verwoed a chance: Find alternative to apartheid. Daily Newspaper in Tanzania on South Africa.

Tanganyika Standard

PACSA Collection

PC 11/1/7/1
Rivonia Treason Trial 1963 - Biographies of the accused including Nelson R. Mandela

I am prepared to die : Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock at the opening of the defence case in the Rivonia Trial

  • ZA COM MR-S-010
  • Item
  • 20 April 1964
  • Part of Speeches

In this, the opening of the Defence case, Mandela states that his experiences in South Africa and his pride as an African underlie his actions. He details how and why Umkhonto we Sizwe was formed and what its strategies were. He also responds to the allegations of the State one by one and includes an explanation of both his ideological influences and his ideals.

Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla

NMAP_2010_7_2_001.jpg

This item consists of 1 Warrant of Committal issued to Nelson Mandela by the Supreme Court of South Africa. The warrant contains Nelson Mandela's fingerprints.

Supreme Court of South Africa

Warrants of Committal - Nelson Mandela

  • NMAP 2010/07
  • Series
  • 1962-11-07 - 1964-06-12
Following Nelson Mandela’s sentencing on 7 November 1962, the Pretoria Magistrates Court issued a warrant committing him to prison for five years.
He had been convicted and sentenced that day to three years for on charges of “inciting to trespass laws” (to strike) and two for leaving South Africa without a passport. It was stipulated that the two sentences were to run consecutively.
The second Warrant of Committal was issued by the Transvaal Provincial Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa on June 12, 1964, the same day the judge handed down a sentence of life imprisonment for Mr Mandela and his colleagues, who was convicted on four counts of sabotage in the Rivonia Trial.
The first two counts were for contravening Section 21(1) of the General Laws Amendment Act (Sabotage Act) No. 76 of 1962; the third in contravention of Section 11(a), read with Sections 1 and 12 of Act No. 44 of 1950; and the fourth was for contravening Section 3(1) (6), read with Section 2 of Act No. 8 of 1953 (as amended).

Supreme Court of South Africa

NMAP_2010_7_2_002.jpg

This item consists of 1 Warrant of Committal issued to Nelson Mandela by the Supreme Court of South Africa. The warrant contains Nelson Mandela's fingerprints.

Supreme Court of South Africa

Lionel Shapiro Collection, 1964, Pretoria: [Set of 7 still images]

The photos are taken on 12 June 1964, the day of the verdict in the Rivonia Trial. Lionel Shapiro took the photos whilst studying at Wits and taking pictures once a week for the student paper. Nelson Mandela leaving court in a prison van, protestors, Winnie Mandela and Mandela's mother.

The collection consists of 4 photographs - LS001: Winnie Mandela and Mandela's mother, Nosekeni leaving court; LS002: June Mlangeni leaving the court; LS003: The trialists leaving court after the sentencing in a prison van. Mandela is the first person on the left in the van; and LS004: A supporter outside the court with placard "We are proud of our leaders".

Shapiro, Lionel

Rivonia Trial

UNISA bought the microfilm from CAMP (Cooperative Africana Microfilm Project). These were transferred from the Archives and Special Collections.

Reel FI4059:
-Starts on list of evidence and exhibits (incomplete)
-Charge
-First indictment
-Annexure B to Indictment: The defence request for further particulars and State's reply thereto Part I and II
-Notice of application to quash indictment (27 October 1963)
-Heads of argument re application to quash by Bram Fischer and Percy Yutar's reply
-Second indictment
-Annexure A to indictment: Particulars to the counts set out in the indictment
-Annexure C
-Annexure B
-Notice to quash (22 November 1963)
-Heads of argument
-Bail applications of Bernstein and Kantor and judgment on application
-Opening address by Percy Yutar
-Index to state witnesses and exhibits
-Statements by witnesses including, amongst others, Makda, Mtolo, Davids, Mashiloane, Sulliman, Jaantjies, Jelliman. Card
-Notes on state witnesses evidence taken by defence (volumes 1-4 and extra piece in volume 5). Incomplete.

Reel FI4060:
-Continuation of witness statements including Mtolo,
-Notes on state witnesses evidence taken by defence
-Record of state witnesses in regard to James Kantor: Makda, Gibson, Kleynhans, Cox, First, Fenn, van Rensburg
-Analysis of state evidence by defence
-Defence opening address and Nelson Mandela's (sic) Statement from the Dock
-Walter Sisulu's evidence volume 1 (p.1-155), volume 2 (p. 156-296)

Reel FI4061:
-Walter Sisulu's evidence volume 3 (p. 297-356), volume 4 (p. 357-464)
-Ahmed Kathrada's evidence
-Raymond Mhlaba's evidence
-Lionel Bernstein's evidence (with notes)
-Denis Goldberg's evidence and cross examination by Mr Krog
-Govan Mbeki's evidence (includes notes passed between defence (?) team

FI4062:
-Elias Motsoaledi's statement (4 pages)
-Andrew Mlangeni's statement
-Analysis of defence evidence and notes on argument
-Judgement
-Evidence in mitigation of sentence and judgement on sentence
-Photographs of Rivonia
-Index of accused and co-conspirators and photographs
-Plans of Mountain view and Liliesleaf Farm
-List of documents found by police in raids
-Statement prepared by Nelson Mandela in his handwriting
-Evidence prepared by Sisulu in his handwriting
-Handwritten statement prepared by Sisulu in event of receiving the death sentence

It appears that these microfilms are a defence set and, according to the archivist, the originals came from Joel Joffe. However, they are not identical to the defence set of trial records at Wits (AD1844). That set contains some material that these microfilm do not and this set contains some material that Wits' does not (most notably, Sisulu's evidence and Goldberg's evidence are both complete in UNISA's and not at Wits). The reason for the differences are not known.

Untitled

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers: South African Political Prisoners: The life we led 1963-1966

  • ZA UWCRIMA MR-RT-079
  • Collection
  • 1956 - 1964
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

Manuscript of "South African Political Prisoners: The Life We Led 1963-1966" by Mahlubi L Mrwetyana. Reference to Robben Island prison conditions including for Rivonia Trialists. File on Race Relations with completed questionnaires and extensive notes on prison conditions in South Africa 1956-1961; file with material on families; biographical notes on some of the persons persecuted by the government of the Republic of South Africa for their opposition to the policies of apartheid, 30 May 1964. The list includes Nelson Mandela and other Rivonia Trialists. The list is fairly extensive. File re IRC visits to South African prisons 1964; copies of the letter and reports sent to B J Vorster (Minister of Justice) by the ICRC, June 18 1964 re: conditions in South African prisons (Robben Island, State farm prison, Victor Verster, various police stations in Pretoria and Johannesburg, Pretoria Prison, Leeuwkop, Prison Vooruitsig, Kroonstad, Pretoria Prison, T B Hospital Sonderwater).

Not available for inspection at time of this audit.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

Criminal Court Case No. 253/1963 (The State versus N Mandela and Others)

  • ZA NARSSA MR-RT-093
  • Collection
  • 1963 - 1964
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

The records of the Supreme Court of South Africa (Transvaal Provincial Division) on the proceedings of the Rivonia Trial. Transferred to National Archives in 1994. Incomplete on transfer. Existent records are:

File cover with handwritten notes, including the sentences that were passed. The clerk of the court recorded the sentences that were passed together with the names of the accused on the cover of a file in blue ink.

Extracts of evidence by state witnesses (3 vols). These volumes include records by the attorney for the accused, Mr. B Fischer, applying for the postponement of the proceedings and the reply by Dr Yutar, the State’s main prosecutor. Further records include the verbatim transcriptions of evidence given by state witnesses.

Evidence for defence (1 vol.). Include verbatim transcriptions of evidence given by Ahmed Kathrada, Raymond Mhlaba, Lionel Bernstein and Govan Mbeki.

Rivonia Exhibits (1 vol.). The exhibits include documents seized by the police at Liliesleaf and deals with topics such as the Transkei; Operation Mayibuye; the new draft programme of the South African Communist Party (SACP); names and addresses of ANC and SACP members; a copy of Sibanye, a newsletter; documents discussing problems in the democratic movement, the Nationalists invasion scare, the general predictions for 1963; handwritten notes on freedom movements elsewhere in Africa; an article by E Rosenthal on General De Wet; a syllabus on the fundamental principles of Marxism; a pamphlet named 'A Call to the Youth'; a manual on rock blasting; the rules of the SACP; sketch of Tunisia; handwritten notes on the Kenya Youth Wing Organisations; SACP newsletter on the China/India border dispute; statement by the SACP on conditions in South Africa; document on the differences in the communist movement; invoices from Ace Auto electricians; press statement by Nelson Mandela on 26 June 1961.

State’s Concluding Address (4 vols). These volumes are divided into three parts. The first part deals with a factual analysis of documentary exhibits handed in, and of oral testimony given, by state witnesses. Part two deals with a factual analysis of the documentary exhibits handed in, and of the oral testimony given, by state witnesses (continued). The third part deals with the Rivonia exhibits.

Two volumes consisting of Judge’s remarks in passing sentence; the Attorney General for the Transvaal’s statement explaining which of the accused was found guilty of what offences; a part of the judgement and verbatim transcriptions of the court proceedings

Judgement (1 vol.).

Dictabelts covering the whole case (8 vols).

These records, together with the Prosecution Records received from Brenthurst Library, will at some stage become one group.

Department of Justice

The State versus Nelson Mandela and Nine Others

Partial record of the State versus Nelson Mandela and nine others. Contains: State's Concluding Address : Part 2: The persons who were parties to the conspiracy and the implementation thereof (OP12099), Part.4: A factual analysis of the defence case and of the further documentary exhibits produced in the course thereof (OP12100); and Judgment and Sentence (1 volume: OP12098).

Department of Justice

Rivonia Trial, 1963-1964

This South African material at this repository was collected by Thomas Karis for "From Protest to Challenge" and is in the Karis-Gerhart Collection of South African Political Trials. It contains the following on the Rivonia Trial:
-MF-451 Neg. MF: Rivonia Sabotage Trial: Not an official transcript. File consists of defence attorney's detailed notes on transcript, analyses of evidence and exhibits. Also includes the indictment. 4 reels
-MF-2611 Neg. MF-966: The Rivonia Trial, J G Joffe and M Koff. Microfilm of typescript. 1 reel.
-MF-10791 reel 35 item 6: Rivonia: Operation Mayibuye: A Review of the Rivonia Trial, H H W de Villiers with a foreward by Francis Napier Broome.

Untitled

Files of United Nations Secretary-General, U Thant

Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, including:
Correspondence from U Thant to Mr. Souleymane Ould Cheikh Sidya (Chairman of the Afro-Asian Group and permanent representative to the UN) about the arrest of Nelson Mandela by the South African government and the response received by U Thant from the South African government that the matter essentially falls within the jurisdiction of the Republic of South Africa and that it is not accountable to the UN, 1962.
Statements by anti-apartheid leaders about the racial policies of the South African government, including a statement by Nelson Mandela (quoted in the South African House of Assembly by Helen Suzman), Yusuf Dadoo and Duma Nokwe, 1963. Notes on the forthcoming discussion on the South Africa question in the Security Council by ES Reddy, including the expectation of death sentences for Nelson Mandela and other Rivonia Trialists, and the role of the UN beyond the Rivonia Trial, 1964.
Notes on the Rivonia Trial, and a Security Council discussion on the South African question, with references to the adoption of the resolution on South African prisoners and the Rivonia Trial, a proposal for a separate emergency draft resolution on the Rivonia Trial, possible repercussions of death sentences in the Rivonia Trial, the advantages of adopting a resolution in advance of the sentences, the possibility of death sentences for Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and at least three other accused, Nelson Mandela and Sisulu reported to be disinclined to appeal their sentences with the implication that the time available for external pressure would be limited, and the possibility of long prison terms, 1964.
A memorandum from ES Reddy (Principal Secretary, UN Special Committee Against Apartheid) to Vladimir Suslov (Under-Secretary General for Political and Security Council Affairs), enclosing a copy of a statement made by Chief Albert Luthuli on the Rivonia Trial, to be released immediately after the sentencing of the Rivonia Trialists, 1964. A letter addressed to Mr. Matthys I. Botha, South African representative to the UN about the death sentences imposed on Vuyisile Mini, Zinakile Mkaba and Wilson Khayinga, and the threats of the same penalty being imposed on other political Trialists, 1964.
A press statement issued by South African Prime Minister, HF Verwoerd concerning the sentences passed in the Rivonia Trial, 1964.

U Thant

Mandela not guilty Apartheid guilty

Invitation, letters written to Sean Lamas an Irish leader, leaflets distributed by the world campaign for the release of South African political prisoners and other activities organised by the Anti- Apartheid Movement- mentions and names the accused in the Rivonia trial, quotes Nelson Mandela's Rivonia speech. Includes a copy of Anti- Apartheid news on the Rivonia trial.

Anti-Apartheid Movement

Criminal Court Case No. 253/1963 (State Versus N Mandela and Others)

Records of the Rivonia trial, State versus Nelson Mandela and nine others. The accused are Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Dennis Goldberg, Govan Mbeki, Ahmed Kathrada, Lionel Bernstein, Raymond Mhlaba, James Kantor, Elias Motsoaledi and Andrew Mlangeni.
The collection includes the indictment, opening address, statements and evidence by witnesses for the State and for the accused. Evaluation of evidence, exhibits including photographs. An important component of the collection includes material confiscated at Lilliesleaf farm in Rivonia, such as Mandela's 1962 diary and other documents in his handwriting, most of them relating to armed struggle. It also includes Mandela's statement from the dock, and the State's concluding address.
A significant part of the collection includes materials used to build up the State's case against the Rivonia Trialists.

Mandela Trials Papers

Photocopies of papers collected by Joel Joffe, lawyer acting for Nelson Mandela, relating to Nelson Mandela's trial in Pretoria 1962 and the Rivonia Trial (1963-1964) The collection includes Nelson Mandela's application to have the Pretoria trial postponed, October 1962; Nelson Mandela's address to the court in mitigation of the sentence of five years imprisonment detailing his political commitment and activities in the African National Congress (ANC), November1962; copy of the indictment in the Rivonia trial, initial statement made by Nelson Mandela to his lawyers, giving details of his early life, notes by Nelson Mandela on his life and his association; copy of Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock, signed by Nelson Mandela referring to an Imbizo.

Joffe, Joel

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Mandela Vigil St Paul's June 1964
Correspondence (June 1964) concerning the vigils held at St Paul's and outside the South African
embassy in London to coincide with the sentencing of the Rivonia Trialists. Correspondence include Canon Collins, Manuela Sykes, Dorothy Robison, Archbishop of Canterbury. Campaigns by Christian Action and the Anti- Apartheid Movement
Lists of suggested contacts in connection with the vigil.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

Ballinger Family Papers

Ballinger papers focussing on Anti- Apartheid and trade union struggles, in the collection there is correspondents Department of native Affairs Messrs Mandela and Tambo (Attorneys and the Native Commissioner (Zeerust) disputes between of the Bahurutse. Correspondence requesting help for Nelson Mandela Studying LLB at the University of the Witwatersrand.

Ballinger

Alan Stewart Paton Collection

The state vs. Nelson Mandela and the others. 12 June 1964. Evidence and address by A. Paton in mitigation of sentence,

Paton, Alan

Records of the Rivonia Treason Trial

Incomplete set of records of the state vs. Nelson Mandela and nine others. The collection includes the indictment, opening address, statements, evidence, evaluation of evidence and exhibits including photographs. An important section of the collection relates to preparations of the defence. As well as Nelson Mandela, the accused include Dennis Goldberg, Govan Mbeki, Walter Sisulu, Ahmed Kathrada, Andrew Mlangeni, Raymond Mhlaba, James Kantor and Elias Motsoaledi.

Mandela and seven colleagues imprisoned

Nelson Mandela and seven colleagues face life imprisonment in South Africa." That's the fate of eight African National Congress leaders, tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to violently overthrow South Africa's apartheid government. The trial lasted eight months and attracted worldwide attention. In this 1964 radio report from CBC National News, reporter Patrick Keatley is in London to explain why the defendants likely avoided a death sentence.

Nelson Mandela and seven colleagues face life imprisonment in South Africa." The eight African National Congress leaders, tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to violently overthrow South Africa's apartheid government. The trial lasted eight months and attracted worldwide attention. In this 1964 radio report from CBC National News, reporter Patrick Keatley is in London to explain why the defendants likely avoided a death sentence. "The sentence of life imprisonment is a deft stroke by the nationalist government," he concludes. "Certainly it thrusts aside some of the tremendous world horror and political pressure which otherwise would have immediately built up against South Africa."
Mandela and seven colleagues imprisoned
The Rivonia trial was named after the suburb of Johannesburg where 19 African National Congress leaders were arrested at Liliesleaf Farm on July 11, 1963. Mandela was already in custody, having been sentenced to five years in prison in October 1962 for inciting a workers' strike a year earlier.
• At Liliesleaf, the South African government discovered documents belonging to the group Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), a military wing of the ANC. They described plans for attack and guerrilla warfare.
• Several ANC leaders used Liliesleaf as a hideout, and Nelson Mandela himself moved there in 1961. Using the name David Motsamayi (meaning "the walker") he evaded police by masquerading as a cook and gardener. The farm was owned by co-defendant Arthur Golderich, a South African abstract painter and a key figure in the anti-apartheid movement.
• In addition to Mandela, the other ANC leaders charged were Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Ahmed Kathrada, Billy Nair, Denis Goldberg, Lionel "Rusty" Bernstein, Bob Hepple, Harold Wolpe, James "Jimmy" Kantor and Golderich.
• This CBC Radio clip notes that six of the defendants were black, but this appears to be incorrect. Goldberg, Bernstein, Hepple and Golderich were white Jews, while Nair and Kathrada were Indian. This leaves five men - Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki, Motsoaledi and Mhlaba - who were black
• Those found guilty on all four counts were Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki, Motsoaledi, Mlangeni, Goldberg and Mhlaba. Kathrada was found guilty on one count of conspiracy. Bernstein was acquitted but was rearrested, released on bail and placed under house arrest. He later fled the country.
• Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (mentioned in this clip as Dr. Verwoerd) was prime minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966. He is called the "Architect of Apartheid" because he broadened existing policies that restricted the black Bantu African nationals' mobility while he was minister of native affairs in the early 1950s. In September 1966, he was stabbed four times in the chest by a uniformed parliamentary messenger names Dmitri Tsafendas. The motive for the murder was unclear.

CBC National News

Records of the Rivonia Trial

Incomplete set of records of the State vs. Nelson Mandela and nine others. The collection includes charge sheets, the indictment, opening address, statements, evidence, evaluation of evidence and exhibits, including photographs, bail applications, sentencing. An important section of the collection relates to preparation of the defence. Also includes a VHS video (no soundtrack) of the cells and court room where the Rivonia Trial was held. This was filmed a long time after the trial. Its reference code is AD1844, D.

Missing volumes are: Volume 21: Walter Sisulu's Evidence (vol. 2); Volume 22: Walter Sisulu's Evidence (vol. 3); Volume 23: Walter Sisulu's Evidence (vol. 4); Volume 27: Denis Goldberg's Evidence; Volume 35: Exhibit: Plan of Liliesleaf and Rivonia. Incomplete: Volume 29: Elias Motsoaledi's Statement. It is not clear why these volumes are missing.

The records in this collection are the Defence set donated originally by Joel Joffe. They are part of the archives of the South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR).

Joffe, Joel

Records of Secretary-General U Thant

Includes:
-Correspondence from U Thant to Mr Souleymane Ould Cheikh Sidya (Chairman of the Afro-Asian Group and permanent representative to the UN) about the arrest of Nelson Mandela by the South African government, and the response received by U Thant from the South African government that the matter essentially falls within the jurisdiction of the Republic of South Africa, and that it is not accountable to the UN, 1962.
-Statements by anti-apartheid leaders about the racial policies of the South African government, including a statement by Nelson Mandela (quoted in the South African House of Assembly by Helen Suzman), Yusuf Dadoo and Duma Nokwe, 1963.
-Notes on the forthcoming discussion on the South Africa question in the Security Council by E S Reddy, including the expectation of death sentences for Nelson Mandela and other Rivonia Trialists, and the role of the UN beyond the Rivonia Trial, 1964.
-Notes on the Rivonia Trial, and a Security Council discussion on the South African question, with references to the adoption of the resolution on South African prisoners and the Rivonia Trial, a proposal for a separate emergency draft resolution on the Rivonia Trial, possible repercussions of death sentences in the Rivonia Trial, the advantages of adopting a resolution in advance of the sentences, the possibility of death sentences for Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and at least three other accused, Mandela and Sisulu reported to be disinclined to appeal their sentences with the implication that the time available for external pressure would be limited, and the possibility of long prison terms, 1964.
-A memorandum from E S Reddy (Principal Secretary, UN Special Committee Against Apartheid) to Vladimir Suslov (Under-Secretary General for Political and Security Council Affairs), enclosing a copy of a statement made by Chief Albert Luthuli on the Rivonia Trial, to be released immediately after the sentencing of the Rivonia Trialists, 1964.
-Letter addressed to Mr. Matthys I. Botha, South African representative to the UN about the death sentences imposed on Vuyisile Mini, Zinakile Mkaba and Wilson Khayinga, and the threats of the same penalty being imposed on other political trialists, 1964.
-Press statement issued by South African Prime Minister, HF Verwoerd concerning the sentences passed in the Rivonia Trial, 1964.

U Thant

Rivonia Trial

  • ZA CL-RU MR-RT-030
  • Collection
  • 1963 - 1964
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

Purchased from Microfile, Johannesburg. Records of the State vs. Nelson Mandela and nine others. Includes indictments, addresses, evidence and other trial records. Incomplete. There is no inventory so it is unclear which trial records are missing.

Department of Justice

Records of the Foreign Office: Rivonia Trial

These records fall under: Foreign Office: Political Departments: General Correspondence; African, West and Central (J): South Africa (JS) subseries.
Includes:
-CVs of Rivonia Trialists written by Nadine Gordimer (April 1964)
-Nelson Mandela speech from the dock (scheduled for 20th April)
-Analysis (8 April 1964)
-Rivonia Trial (notes from Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign affairs, 10 April 1964)
-Nigerian government's concern for the Rivonia accused (notes, 10 April 1964)
-Potential intervention by the British government (discussions, no date)
-Possible intervention by German government in Rivonia trial (note, 16 April 1964)
-Rivonia trial defence (newspaper articles, various April 1964)
-Kenyan's government's anxiety about Rivonia trail (note, no date)
-African leaders plan on demonstrations if Nelson Mandela is executed (notes, 7 May 1964)
-Ethiopia asks for Belgium to exert pressure on South African government (note, 6 may 1964)
-Nelson Mandela's speaking in Addis Ababa - exhibit R13 in the Rivonia trial (notes of Nelson Mandela, May 1963)
-Note on Bram Fischer's defence statement (20 April 1964)
-The likely outcome of the Rivonia Trial (discussion document, no date)
-"The Revolutionary way out" (statement of the SACO, no date)
-"Should the British Prime Minister send a private message to Verwoed about Rivonia?" (correspondence, 7 May 1964; reply on 14 May saying it would be inadvisable)
-Letter enclosing Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock (correspondence from, 6 May 1964)
-Van den Bergh of BOSS does not expect a death sentence to be passed in the Rivonia Trail (note, 20 May 1964

UK Foreign Office

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers: Conditions for political prisoners in 1960s

  • ZA UWCRIMA MR-RT-078
  • Collection
  • 1961 - 1964
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

General strike: Report of the 3 day strike in South Africa (May 29, 30,31, 1961) by Nelson Mandela (Secretary, National Action Council of South Africa); prisoners of Apartheid a biographical list of political prisoners and banned persons in South Africa (IDAF in cooperation with UN Centre Against Apartheid); South African Prisons and the Red Cross Investigation and examination by the International Defence and Aid Fund with prisoners testimony. Includes general recommendations of the ICRC sent to the South African Government (18 June 1964), the SA government reply, conditions at Leeuwkop, Robben Island, Victor Verster, Vooruitsig Prison Kroonstad, and other prisons, Robert Sobukwe on Robben Island. Relates to Rivonia Trial in terms of conditions in prison for trialists once convicted.

Not available for inspection at time of this audit.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

The State versus Nelson Mandela and Nine Others

Partial record of the State versus Nelson Mandela and nine others. Contains only State's Concluding Address: vol.1: A factual analysis of the documentary exhibits handed in and of the oral testimony given, by the state witnesses.

Department of Justice

Mandela Manuscripts

Presented to Lloyd Cutler by South Africa’s Chief Justice Arthur Chaskalson in 1997. Lloyd Cutler was founding partner of the WilmerHale Law Firm and a civil rights activist in the US. They were to recognise the firm's role in the fight to end Apartheid.

Papers include transcripts of his speech at the 1963-64 Rivonia Trial, notes that Mandela made in his own handwriting both during his trial and as he sat in prison on the night before he heard the sentence on his life. These are copies of originals donated by President Mandela to Bram Fischer Library (now held at Historical Papers, University of Witwatersrand).

Untitled

Interview with Nelson Mandela

Part of Kairos collection.
Sound for film. Interview with Nelson Mandela re Rivonia trial (amongst other topics) in Dutch (?)

Untitled

UK: London: Anti-Apartheid Meeting Raises Funds For New World Campaign

Reuters programme from 28 February 1964 re "Torture in South Africa" - a meeting held in London to protest against Apartheid. Admission fees for the meeting went to new organisations "The World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners" formed after Rivonia Trial.

ITN Source represents the footage libraries of Reuters (including historic newsreel collections), ITN, ITV Productions, Fox News and Fox Movietone, Channel 9 News, UTV, Asian News International and other specialist collections.

Reuters

Hilda and Rusty Bernstein Papers

Rusty (Lionel) Bernstein's Papers include personal correspondence to family and comrades, professional documentation relating to his career as an architect and inventor, and a large collection of writing, including drafts and material for his political biography "Memory Against Forgetting" as well as articles, essays and literature relating to prominent events in the liberation struggle (the 1946 Mine Workers Strike, The Freedom Charter and the Rivonia Trial). The collection also includes written material relating to his political career in the Communist Party and involvement with the ANC and as editor/contributor to journals like Fighting Talk and The African Communist and a lecture series given in Moscow to young militants of the ANC. Hilda Bernstein's papers include a series of journals dating from 1967 to 2001 and personal diaries written whilst in prison, and on travels throughout South Africa and Europe. A large part of the collection marks her involvement with women's rights and work for the ANC Women's League. There is also a considerable collection of art records documenting her career in London and Europe. The bulk of the collection is comprised of records relating to Hilda's extensive writings - books, articles and political literature. Of particular prominence is material collected for her most recent book "The Rift", which captures the experiences of South African exiles. There is also a large collection of correspondence both personal and professional and political brochures relating to her position as City Councillor for the Communist Party in Johannesburg from 1943 to 1946. The records kept by Hilda (viewed as 'evidence' of Hilda's activities) far outnumber those kept by Rusty. It would be misleading to presume that this is in any way a complete archive of the Bernstein's activities.

Records directly related to the Rivonia Trial are:
D1.2 Sketches, Rivonia Trial done by Hilda on scraps of paper in black pen during the trial. There are drawings of the judge, Special Branch policemen, court scenes and the back of the heads of the accused.
F2.18 Article by Hilda: "The Rivonia Trial" (1 December 1963), 4 pages of a reflection on the trial
F2.23 Article by Hilda: "The Men Who Many Die" (8 March 1964)
F2.25 Article by Hilda: "Rivonia" Landmark in SA Liberation Struggle" (24 June 1964) detailing what happened at Rivonia
F3.36 Article by Hilda: "The Trials of Nelson Mandela" (undated)
R3.1 Article in Sechaba 1989: "Rivonia: Telling it as it was"
V2.1 Transcript of Judge's remarks when passing sentence in the trial (photocopy)
V2.2 "Rivonia: The Story of Accused No. 11" by Bob Hepple. Memoirs (manuscript) with letters from Sisulu and Joffe as appendix.

Minor references to the Rivonia Trial are:
B2.1 Diary notes where Hilda refers visiting Rusty in jail, going to court and consulting with lawyers amongst other things
I11.1.2 Letter addressed to Rusty from Hilda in Pretoria Jail. Aside from address, not reference to trial or Rivonia events.
N4 Correspondence re his inventions and other business between Rusty and Hilda while he was in prison during the Rivonia Trial
Q1 Draft Novel by Rusty written in Pretoria Local Prison during the trial in 1963/4. Content not related to Trial in any way.

Bernstein, Robert L

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Correspondence (1964) about an article on Nelson Mandela to be published in the volume Sudafrika
und Apartheid (Germany). Correspondence include Phyllis Altman, Kurt Busch.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Manuscript of South African Political Prisoners: The life we led 1963-1966 by Mahlubi L Mrwetyana
with reference to Robben Island prison conditions
File Race Relations with completed questionnaires and extensive notes on prison conditions in
South Africa 1956-1961, File material on Families
Biographical notes on some of the persons persecuted by the government of the Republic of
South Africa for their opposition to the policies of apartheid, 30 May 1964. The list includes Nelson
Mandela and other Rivonia Trialists. The list is fairly extensive. File IRC visits to SA prisons 1964
Copies of the letter and reports sent to B.J. Vorster (Minister of Justice) by the ICRC, June 18 1964
re: conditions in South African prisons (Robben Island State farm prison Victor Verster, Various
police stations in Pretoria and Johannesburg, Pretoria Prison, Prison Leeuwkop, Prison Vooruitsig
Kroonstad, Pretoria Prison, T.B. Hospital Sonderwater)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

Rivonia Trial

Records of the State versus Nelson Mandela and nine others (Walter Sisulu, Dennis Goldberg, Govan Mbeki, Ahmed Kathrada, Lionel Bernstein, Raymond Mhlaba, James Kantor, Elias Motsoaledi and Andrew Mlangeni).

Files of United Nations Secretary-General, U Thant

Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, include:
UN press statement calling for the abandonment of the Rivonia Trial and the release of leaders such as Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu. Letter from Chief Albert Luthuli, President of the African National Congress, sent to the UN Secretary-General, U Thant, about the South African crisis. Albert Luthuli's letter refers the Rivonia Trial and the danger that some or all of the accused could be given the death sentence, and requests that the UN help to save the lives of the Rivonia Trialists. Statement by the UN Special Committee against Apartheid, with reference to the Rivonia Trialists. A record of the 1128th meeting of the UN Security Council, with commentary from Mr. such, the Chinese representative, saying that the Rivonia accused are "on their way to becoming apartheid martyrs." International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) memorandum about relief for the victims of political persecution in South Africa, with reference to the ongoing Rivonia Trial of Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and others.

U Thant

Liberal Party Archives

PC2/3/3/1
National Office correspondence 1952-1959: Correspondence on Elections, funding, overseas press liaison, LPSA policies, meeting plus Nelson Mandela's article in Liberation criticising LPSA.

PC 2/4/6/4
Signed letter from Nelson Mandela as Hon. Secretary of the All in Africa National Council, 22.05.1961

PC 2/4/16/2
Rivonia trial June 1964. State vs. Nelson Mandela and others. Section SV6 of the trial. Evidence and
address in Mitigation of sentence by Alan Paton

Description of Alan Paton 's evidence and address( seems to be a typed chapter from a book)

Paton, Alan

Joel Joffe Papers

Joel Joffe was one of the defence lawyers in the Rivonia Trial. This collection contains a copy of the book written by him on the Rivonia Trial, The Rivonia Story, accompanied by copies of documents in Nelson Mandela's handwriting. The documents include his application for remand in the Pretoria Regional Court on 15 October 1962, a typed account of his speech in the Pretoria Regional Court, first draft of his speech and notes to be used if he was sentenced to death.

Joffe, Joel

Rivonia Trial

Records of the State vs. Nelson Mandela and nine others. Microfilm, 35 mm. Originals in South African Institute of Race Relations Archive at University of Witwatersrand (see AD1844). The microfilm is identical to the set of records at Wits and is missing the same volumes. Includes charge sheets, the indictment, opening address, statements, evidence, evaluation of evidence and exhibits, bail applications, sentencing. An important section of the collection relates to preparation of the defence as this was the defence team's set of records pertaining to the trial.

Department of Justice

The State versus Nelson Mandela and Nine Others

  • ZA ASC-UNISA MR-RT-028
  • Collection
  • 1963 - 1964
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

In Special Collections section of the UNISA Library. The records of the Supreme Court of South Africa (Transvaal Provincial Division) on the proceedings of the Rivonia Trial. The collection contains: Indictment: Annexures and Opening address (1 volume); State's Concluding Address (volumes 1-4): vol.1: A factual analysis of the documentary exhibits handed in and of the oral testimony given, by the state witnesses, vol.2: The persons who were parties to the conspiracy and the implementation thereof, vol.3: n Kritiese ontleding van sekere dokumentere bewysstukke, vol.4: A factual analysis of the defence case and of the further documentary exhibits produced in the course thereof; and Judgment and Sentence (1 volume).

Department of Justice

Records of the Foreign Office: Rivonia Trial

These records fall under: Foreign Office: Political Departments: General Correspondence; African, West and Central (J): South Africa (JS) subseries.

Contains:
Correspondence from the Nigerian diplomats on various British expatriates working at universities and hospitals who will resign from their positions if Nelson Mandela is sentenced to death (29 May 1963).

It was not possible to verify the existence of these records at the time of this audit.

UK Foreign Office

Rivonia Trial Records

Contains papers relating to Rivonia Trial made available by Joel Joffe. Copies housed in the Bram Fischer Library. Originals at Historical Papers, University of Witwatersrand, A2519 Nelson Mandela Papers: Handwritten speeches and papers by Nelson Mandela for the Pretoria Regional Court Trial (1962) and the Rivonia Trial (1963-1964). The collection includes further notes by Nelson Mandela for his defence; the application for the remand of the trial; an application challenging the right of the court to try him and his preparatory notes. Rivonia Trial records are a typed copy of Mandela's statement from the dock (signed); final clause of statement from the dock (manuscript); notes that Mandela intended to use if he were sentenced to death when asked if he had anything to say (manuscript).

Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers: Mandela Vigil St Paul's June 1964

Correspondence (June 1964) concerning the vigils held at St Paul's and outside the South African embassy in London to coincide with the sentencing of the Rivonia trialists. Correspondents includes Canon Collins, Manuela Sykes, Dorothy Robison, Archbishop of Canterbury. Campaigns by Christian Action and the Anti- Apartheid Movement. Lists of suggested contacts in connection with the vigil.

Not available for inspection at time of this audit.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers: Biographical notes on Rivonia Trialists

Part of International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers. Biographical notes on some of the people persecuted by the South African government for their opposition to the policies of apartheid, 30 May 1964. The list includes Nelson Mandela and other Rivonia trialists.

Available for inspection at time of audit.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

Liberal Party of South Africa Collection

Special topics/memoranda: State vs. Nelson Mandela and others. Section SV6 of the trial. Contains evidence and address in mitigation of sentence where Alan Paton is examined first by Mr Hanson for the Defence and then by Dr Yutar for the State (12 June 1964). Also description of Alan Paton 's evidence and address (seems to be a typed chapter from a book).

Liberal Party

South African Police Museum and Archives Collection

The Museum contains evidence and documentation related to high profile police investigations. Rivonia Trial material is as follows:
Artefacts taken as evidence during the raid on Liliesleaf Farm:
-Three duplication machines (Roneo 750)
-Two radio transmitters
-Typewriter
Incomplete. These came to the Museum from John Vorster Square Police Station. They were then transferred back to the Police Station. When they were finally returned to the Museum, some artefacts and evidence was missing.

Archival files contain:
-One page on artefacts and their significance when transferred from John Vorster Square Police Station to the Museum in 1984.
-Labels from artefact evidence
-Pamphlets collected as evidence
-Instruction manual for duplication machine
-Press clippings from trial
-State's Concluding Address III (Afrikaans)
All 639.29-2/2A

Untitled

The Voice of Nelson Mandela

Extracts from his famous Statement from the Dock. Produced in 2001.

South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC)

Mandela Trials Papers

Photocopies of papers collected by Joel Joffe, lawyer acting for Nelson Mandela, relating to Mandela's trial in Pretoria (1962) and the Rivonia Trial (1963-1964); including Mandela's application to have the Pretoria trial postponed, October 1962; Mandela's address to the court in mitigation of the sentence of five years imprisonment, detailing his political commitment and activities in the African National Congress (ANC), November 1962; copy of the indictment in the Rivonia Trial, initial statement made by Mandela to his lawyers, giving details of his early life; notes by Mandela on his life and ANC association; copy of Mandela's statement from the dock, signed by Mandela, manuscript notes by Mandela to use if he were sentenced to death, and manuscript notes by Mandela referring to the tribal council called Imbizo.

Joffe, Joel

UK: Protest Against South African Sabotage Trial Sentence - Petition for United Nations

Reuters programme from 15 June 1964 re Mr Butler, Britain's Foreign Secretary, telling that the South African government were aware of British government's objection to the Rivonia Trial but that the matter should not be taken further while there was still a question about whether they would appeal. Also re petition to the UN calling for release of all political prisoners in South Africa.

ITN Source represents the footage libraries of Reuters (including historic newsreel collections), ITN, ITV Productions, Fox News and Fox Movietone, Channel 9 News, UTV, Asian News International and other specialist collections.

Reuters

Files of United Nations Secretary-General, U Thant

Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, including:
The General Assembly Resolution 1761 (XVII) of November 1962, requesting that the South African government abandon all arbitrary trials and release all political prisoners. The General Assembly Resolution A/RES/1881 (XVIII) on the policies of apartheid of the government of South Africa, with reference to reports of the upcoming Rivonia Trial, with the possibility of death sentences for a large number of prisoners, 1963. Notes on the question of apartheid in South Africa, including a review of recent UN proceedings that call for the release of all political prisoners, 1964. Security Council resolutions calling for the release of all political prisoners, 1963 - 1964. Security Council resolution S/5761, calling for the ending of the [Rivonia Trial], and the granting of amnesty to all political prisoners and detainees, particularly the defendants in the Rivonia Trial, 1964.

U Thant

Umhlobo Wenene

Records of the State vs. Nelson Mandela and nine others (Walter Sisulu, Dennis Goldberg, Govan Mbeki, Ahmed Kathrada, Lionel Bernstein, Raymond Mhlaba, James Kantor, Elias Motsoaledi and Andrew Mlangeni).

Records of the Rivonia Treason Trial

Records of the State vs. Nelson Mandela and nine others (Walter Sisulu, Dennis Goldberg, Govan Mbeki, Ahmed Kathrada, Lionel Bernstein, Raymond Mhlaba, James Kantor, Elias Motsoaledi and Andrew Mlangeni).

Supreme Court of South Africa

National Archives United Kingdom

Nelson Mandela's life sentence
Reactions various 1963. Foreign reaction to the Rivonia trial judgment and sentences. Statement in parliament by H.F. Verwoerd (16 June 1964). Rivonia trial judgment ( includes newspaper cuttings). Correspondence ( 16 June 1964)
Rivonia trial sentence Summary from press articles (1964)
Question whether the British government should ask the South African government to reduce the life sentences handed down in the Rivonia trial.
Correspondence ( 26 June 1964)
Libyan embassy in London will ask the UK secretary of state to intervene and have the Rivonia trial life sentences reduced.
Report ( 15 June 1964) The U.S. state department will not ask for a reduction in the Rivonia trial.
Correspondence Internal British foreign office (27 June 1964) Secretary of the state talking about the RivoniaSpeech to the House of Commons ( July 1964) The Canadian Ambassador asks that the Rivonia trial sentences be reduced
Report (22 July 1964) Rivonia trial accused decide not to appeal Report (27 July 1964)
The German government approaches South Africa about the Rivonia trial sentences
Report ( 2 September 1964) Book on Rivonia trial by Judge De Villiers
Report (24 September 1964)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Biographical notes on some of the people persecuted by the South African government for their
opposition to the policies of apartheid, 30 May 1964. The list includes Nelson Mandela and other
Rivonia Trialists.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Copies of the letter and reports sent to JB Vorster ( Minister of Justice), by the International Committee for the Red Cross, June 18 1964, concerning conditions in South African prisons (Robben Island, Victor Verster, various police stations in Pretoria and Johannesburg, Pretoria Prison Leeuwkop, Kroonstad and Sonderwater TB Hospital)

.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Copies of legal proceedings of the Rivonia trial, the state versus Nelson Mandela and nine others. These include the statement by Walter Sisulu 's evidence led with original handwritten annotations, by Walter Sisulu, extracts of evidence (examination by Bram Fischer) extracts of the cross examination of Walter Sisulu by Percy Yutar, Govan Mbeki extracts of evidence (examination by Bram Fischer), Ahmed Kathrada extracts of evidence (examination by Vernon Berrange). Lionel Bernstein extracts of evidence (cross examination by Percy Yutar), Elias Motsoaledi's statement at the trial. The file also includes notes made by Govan Mbeki regarding his interrogation while under 90 day detention, a typescript of an article about the arrests at Rivonia and the start of the Rivonia trial that week (presumably published), news clippings on the trial and a pamphlet entitled " My
fight is for all: Mandela tells court of ANC objectives" containing extracts of Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock as published by the Rand Daily Mail in Johannesburg. 1963-1964.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Correspondence concerning vigils to be held at St Paul's Cathedral and outside of the South African
embassy in London, coinciding with the sentencing of the Rivonia Trialists. These campaigns were
led by Christian Action and the Anti- Apartheid Movement. Correspondents include Canon John Collins, Manuel Sykes, Dorothy Robinson and the Archbishop of Canterbury. There is also a list of
suggested contacts in connection with the vigil.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF) Papers

Correspondence, drafts articles, press statements, handwritten notes, cables campaign material and other documentation concerning the Rivonia Trial. These include correspondence concerning the
sentencing, reports on decision by the Trialists to appeal against their sentences, typescripts of
draft articles on the imprisonment of Nelson Mandela and the Rivonia Trialists some of which are
written by E.S. ( Solly) Sachs, articles on the Rivonia Trial, biographical profiles of Nelson Mandela
issued by the Anti- Apartheid Movement, statement issued by Canon John Collins, Toll Kellock and
others by the Africa bureau, a typescript of Nelson Mandela statement from the dock, " Why I am ready to die" with original annotations, a Christian Action article entitled " Mandela a message from prison"
notes for adverts and letters concerning the Rivonia Trial, a pamphlet entitled " The message of
Rivonia" and statements of accounts and annexure of monies received in relation to the Rivonia
Trial. Correspondents include Freda Nuell, J Hadebe,, Canon Collins, E.S. Reddy, Hugh Lewin, Joel Joffe, Raymond Kunene and Rica Hodgson.

International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF)

Maniben Sita Collection

  • ZA COM NMAP-2009/1
  • Series
  • 1957-1964

Sita’s 1963 diary, with additional entries from 1962. Also includes leaflets: “The Group Areas Act & Mr. Nana Sita” (1964?), SA Indian Congress, London; and pamphlets: “I Accuse!” Speeches to court by Nelson Mandela, 1962-1963 trial (origin unknown); “South Africa’s Treason Trial” (1957), “Afrika!” Publications, Johannesburg.

Sita had concealed these documents in a cushion to avoid them being confiscate during raids by the security police at her family home. In 2008, Sita gifted the cushion to Mandela for his 90th birthday stating on an accompanying note that he will find the contents of the cushion interesting. When the gift was received, the cushioned was unstitched revealing the documents.

Sita, Maniben

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