Collection of film and video recordings consisting of distribution prints and master materials (negatives, rushes, sound tracks and trims). The subjects covered include: Nelson Mandela's early views on the objectives of the ANC and the liberation struggle. The reception given to Mandela's rejection of the regime's offer of conditional release, read by his daughter Zindzi to a vast gathering in Soweto on 10 February 1985. Commentary from activists and family members, including Winnie Mandela. Prison conditions on Robben Island including Mandela's cell, the daily routine of hard labour, diet in prison, isolation and Mandela's transfer to Pollsmoor Prison in 1985. The impact of international campaigns for the release of Mandela, including footage of the Free Mandela Campaign Concert held at Wembley Stadium in celebration of his 70th birthday. The collection also includes interviews with Nelson Mandela, Winnie Mandela, Andrew Masondo, Jacob Zuma, Indres Naidoo, Philip Mathews, Mary Benson, Barbara Harmel and Barry Feinberg. It consists of both completed productions and raw footage.
Collection of documents and photographs, including a photocopy of a biographical profile of Nelson Mandela written by Wolfie Kodesh. Other subjects include: The meeting between Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo's in Stockholm, Sweden (1990). The full text of Nelson Mandela's response to the conditional offer of freedom made in parliament by the State President PW Botha. Statement issued by Ismail Ayob, on behalf of Nelson Mandela, on the protection of Nelson Mandela's name from being abused, Nelson Mandela Freedom at 70 campaign. The full text of Nelson Mandela's speech at the Grand Parade in Cape Town on the day of his release from prison in 1990
Programmes and programme segments broadcast on channels such as ABC, CBC, CNN, NBC and Nightline. Includes footage and reports on the following: Reports of the Reagan Administration’s support of the release of Nelson Mandela from prison. President Reagan’s attitude towards Nelson Mandela and his views on negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC). Senator Edward Kennedy’s tour of South Africa, which included a meeting with Winnie Mandela. A report that the CIA was instrumental in Nelson Mandela’s arrest. Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela as leaders of the ANC. US Congress delegation visit to South Africa, and meeting with Foreign Minister Pik Botha, and their request to visit Nelson Mandela not permitted. The impact of economic sanctions against South Africa, with Nelson Mandela mentioned. US Secretary of State George Shultz’s visit to South Africa, and an explanation by him on US policy towards South Africa, including a demand for the release of Nelson Mandela. Anti-apartheid demonstrations in New York, with calls for the release of Nelson Mandela. Nelson Mandela’s visit to the US after his release from prison. Nelson Mandela reported as being inspired by the American ideal. The amount of money raised for the ANC during Mandela’s US visit. Visits by Nelson Mandela to Oakland, Los Angeles, Miami, Atlanta, Boston and New York City. Nelson Mandela addressing the US Congress. The meeting of Nelson Mandela with President Bush at the White House, and reportedly urging President Bush to maintain economic sanctions against South Africa. Remarks by Nelson Mandela about Libyan leader Muammar Kadhafi, Palestinian Liberation Organisation Leader Yasser Arafat and Cuban leader Fidel Castro. Senator Edward Kennedy with Nelson Mandela. People commenting on what Nelson Mandela symbolises. The meeting of Nelson Mandela with Secretary of State James Baker and other national leaders. Comments by George Bush on Nelson Mandela's release from prison. A celebration of Independence Day in the US, where President Bill Clinton awards medals to Nelson Mandela and FW De Klerk. Nelson Mandela speaking about the challenge in Africa for the US. Statements by President Mandela and President Clinton during Nelson Mandela’s first official visit to the US and the welcoming ceremony at the White House. President Nelson Mandela’s address to a joint session of Congress. Mandela’s meeting with Louis Farrakhan US Vice President Al Gore’s visit to South Africa, and his meeting with Nelson Mandela. Hillary Clinton’s visit to South Africa with scenes shown from Robben Island. Bill Clinton’s visit to South Africa, and his meetings with Nelson Mandela. The White House reception held for Nelson Mandela in the latter part of his Presidency. The awarding of the Congressional Gold Medal to Nelson Mandela by Clinton. A statement by Mandela that Muammar el-Kadhafi has promised to turn over the suspects in the bombing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Nelson Mandela commenting on the relationship between the US and Iraq, saying that no country should be allowed to take the law into their own hands. Statements by Nelson Mandela that President Bush is undermining the United Nations.
Programmes and programme segments broadcast on channels such as ABC, CBS and NBC. Includes footage and reports on: The preparations for the mass march to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town, where Nelson Mandela was being held as prisoner at the time. The anticipation of police violence and mass arrests at the march. Police warnings against the march. The decline in the South African economy attributed to the planned march. The arrest of Reverend Allan Boesak, one of the key march organizers and international condemnation of his arrest. Police brutality on the day of the march.
The personal papers of Dr. Sylvia Neame, including a statement delivered by Mary Benson to the Ad Hoc Working Group on Human Rights on Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment and Robben Island prison conditions. The collection also includes biographies of ANC leaders, published statements, articles and news clippings concerning Mandela
Collection of news clippings concerning the following: Campaigns for Nelson Mandela’s release from prison (1980- 1989). Nelson Mandela and Robert J. Brown, Nelson Mandela being diagnosed with tuberculosis, his 70th birthday, and the Free Mandela Concert held at Wembley Stadium (1988). The Mandela family (1988- 1989). Nelson Mandela’s release from prison, and worldwide reaction to his release (1990). Speeches and statements by Nelson Mandela (1990-1991). Tours undertaken by Nelson Mandela, including visits to the USA, Canada, Europe, Africa, South America (Brazil, Spain, Cuba, Venezuela, Mexico), the Far East and Australia (1990 - 1991). Victor Verster prison, visits to Nelson Mandela at Victor Verster, and his meeting with PW Botha (1989). Biographical profiles Nelson of Mandela.
Copies of records of the Delmas Treason Trial. Members of the 22 accused included Baleka Kgositsle, Popo Molefe, Patrick "Terror" Lekota and Moses Chikane. The records include references to, and police reports on the Release Mandela Campaign of the 1980s, Rivonia, and campaigns for the release of Nelson Mandela and all political prisoners. The records also include state prosecution assessments of witness statements.
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (Photographs and Prints Division)
A pamphlet produced for the march to Pollsmoor Prison in 1985, containing a message intended for Nelson Mandela. In the collection, there is a copy of the speech read by Zindzi Mandela on behalf of her father rejecting the regime's offer of conditional release.
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (Photographs and Prints Division)
Programmes and programme segments broadcast by Radio Freedom, the radio station of the African Audio interviews used in the Vara Radio (Netherlands) programme "Portrait of Mandela," including an excerpt of Nelson Mandela's 1961 interview conducted by an ITN journalist, and a copy of the completed documentary. Interviewees include Winnie Mandela, Allan Boesak, Archbishop Trevor Huddleston, Lord Bethell, Brian Bunting, Albert Dhlomo, Ben Turok and C Stork.
The personal papers of Oliver Tambo. The collection includes: News clippings from South African and international newspapers concerning the arrest of Nelson Mandela in 1962, his court appearances, and calls for his release from prison (1962 -1988). Correspondence concerning the PAFMECSA conference held in Ethiopia addressed to all member governments, a letter from the ANC London office concerning the arrests of Mandela and Walter Sisulu, and a cable from the Somali Minister of Foreign Affairs to Tambo re: Mandela’s arrest (1962). News clippings in the build up to and aftermath of Mandela’s release from prison (1990 - 1991). News clippings, programmes and itineraries concerning Mandela’s visits to the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, India, Japan, Malaysia, Australia, Geneva, Botswana and other countries (1990 - 1991). Reports on campaigns for the release of political prisoners, including reports from Robben Island, and on Lord Nicholas Bethel's meeting with Mandela. Also includes a 1970 report by Mandela about prison conditions on Robben Island (1970 - 1989). Correspondence from Mandela, written from Pollsmoor Prison, to Oliver Tambo and a number of other individuals. Original letters to Tambo, as well as transcripts of letters written to Nthato Motlana, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, Sheila Weinberg and Desmond Tutu, amongst others. Also included is a letter of thanks to Mrs. Bhalla of the Indian Council for the 1979 Jawaharlal Nehru Award and a letter of sympathy on the death of Seretse Khama (1978 - 1989). Media reports concerning Mandela, including cables. Includes reports by Radio RSA, internal media monitoring, an African National Congress (ANC) statement on Mandela’s health, and of a visit to Mandela by Robert Brown (1985 - 1990). Correspondence, reports and messages concerning international support for Mandela’s release from prison. Subjects covered include tributes on his 60th and 70th birthdays, and awards and honours conferred on Mandela, particularly through the work of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement (1984). Statements and correspondence concerning the assassination of Chris Hani (1993). Video recordings of various events before and after Mandela’s release from prison. These include the 1990 Free Mandela Concert at Wembley Stadium and Mandela’s 1990 visit to Lusaka (1988 - 1990). Correspondence, lists and statements by Oliver Tambo concerning awards and honours conferred on Mandela. These include honorary degrees, Freedom of the City awards, artistic attributes and facilities named after Mandela. The correspondence is primarily between Oliver Tambo and heads of / representatives of awarding countries and institutions. The awards include the Simon Bolivar Prize, the naming of a road in Mandela’s honour in Botswana, and awards conferred by the Sandinista National Liberation Front of Nicaragua, the Jamaican Human Rights Organisation, the University of Carabobo of Venezuela, and the Karl Marx University of the German Democratic Republic (1983 - 1990). Correspondence and statements concerning international calls for, and, Mandela’s release from prison. These include correspondence about a resolution passed by the African Symposium on African Orality in Nigeria, and a statement by the president of the Republic of Senegal after Mandela’s release. Other correspondents include Senator Michael J Williams of Trinidad and Tobago, OJ Masire of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO), and the Communist Party of Sweden (1989 - 1990). Correspondence from Tambo to Mandela and to the Mandela family (1991 - 1992).
Speeches delivered in Mandela’s honour. Drafts of plays and books written about Nelson Mandela, the drafts include No Easy Walk to Freedom, Nelson Mandela and the Rivonia Trial and What is to be done’. Published and unpublished statements and speeches of Mandela, 1962 - 1991. Correspondence and memoranda relating to the Nelson Mandela National Reception Committee (1989 - 1990). Biographical
Collection of news clippings, mostly in Norwegian, that covers the following: Arrests in South Africa during the 1952 Defiance Campaign. The 1956 treason trial. Nelson Mandela in hiding as the "Black Pimpernel" (1964). Historical profiles of Nelson Mandela. The Rivonia Trial, with references to Nelson Mandela and Percy Yutar (1964), and reports on Nelson Mandela and others found guilty on charges of sabotage. A telegram sent to Verwoerd by 21 Norwegian youth organisations, in protest against the life sentences imposed on Nelson Mandela and other prisoners. Reactions to the Rivonia Trial verdict by the Foreign Minister of Great Britain, Richard Butler, as well as a statement by Verwoerd that Nelson Mandela and his men are in the category of spies, and that they have a communist plan to take over the world. The arrest of Nelson Mandela's advocate, Bram Fischer. Zenani Mandela's visit to Oslo in 1985, with biographical profiles of Nelson Mandela.
Correspondence, memoranda, newsletters, pamphlets, reports, publications and other campaign materials concerning: The World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners (1964 - 1967). The Rivonia Trial, and a call to save South Africa's resistance leaders, including Nelson Mandela, from the death penalty. Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock at the Rivonia Trial, translated into Norwegian. Amnesty International reports on prison conditions in South Africa (1965).
Memoranda, reports, statements, cables and project statements covering the following: United States Embassy (South Africa) reports that the African National Congress (ANC) was created to carry out sabotage, stating that the arrest of Nelson Mandela occurred after he planned subversive activities (1962). A memorandum issued by the Summit Conference of Independent African States held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (1963), agreeing to provide funding to help South African liberation movements and calling for the release from prison of Nelson Mandela, Robert Sobukwe and all other political prisoners. A memorandum on the Rivonia Trial providing biographical information on the Rivonia Trialists, and in which Nelson Mandela argues that opposition groups resorted to armed struggle only after avenues for peaceful change were blocked (1964). A report in which ANC and Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) leaders, including Nelson Mandela, Michael Harmel and Walter Sisulu are described as Communists, and documents presented during the Rivonia Trial are cited as evidence of the contacts between the ANC, PAC, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of the People's Republic of China (1964). A memorandum of conversation in which Cecil Eprile characterises black leaders like Nelson Mandela as careless and prone to bad judgment (1965). A cable relating to Resolution 473 of the United Nations Security Council urging South Africa to release all political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela (1980). Biographic sketch information on Nelson Mandela provided by the US Department of State (1983). A cable on the awarding of the international Simon Bolivar prize to Nelson Mandela by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) (1983). Correspondence to the South African Ambassador to the United States, calling for the release of Nelson Mandela (1984). A cable about the Johannesburg Star Newspaper reports that the arrest of Nelson Mandela 25 years ago occurred after he was betrayed by a US Central Intelligence Agency agent posing as a diplomat of the United States Consulate General in Durban (1986). A statement in which Chester A. Crocker calls for the release of Nelson Mandela (1986). A report in which the US Department of State Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on South Africa asserts that the first steps taken by South Africa must be the release of Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki and all other political prisoners (1987).
Programmes and programme segments broadcast on National Public Radio. Includes reports on: Speculation on the possible release of Nelson Mandela from prison. Nelson Mandela’s views on the South African apartheid government. PW Botha’s offer to Nelson Mandela of conditional release, and Nelson Mandela’s rejection of the offer, communicated to the outside world by his daughter, Zindzi, at a mass gathering in Soweto. The firebombing of the Nelson Mandela home in Soweto. Meeting between Steven Solarz and PW Botha. The arrest of United Democratic Front (UDF) leader, Allan Boesak, ahead of a planned march to Pollsmoor Prison calling for the release of Nelson Mandela. Reports on the Pollsmoor March. Profiles of Nelson Mandela and the Mandela family. Profiles of the African National Congress (ANC), in which Mandela is mentioned. Scrapping of the pass laws in South Africa. Release Mandela Campaign, in which Aubrey Mokena, one of the campaign’s key organizers, is mentioned. Nelson Mandela’s calls for South African government negotiations with the ANC. UK Foreign Minister, Geoffrey Howe’s visit to South Africa and meeting with PW Botha. Zenani Mandela’s visit to the United States for a birthday commemoration in honour of Martin Luther King Jr. Twenty- fifth anniversary of Mandela’s imprisonment. Reports of a 1960 speech by Nelson Mandela on the reasons for the armed struggle. Free Mandela concert held at Wembley Stadium, London, in commemoration of his 70th birthday, and other commemorative events. Nelson Mandela’s hospitalisation because of tuberculosis. Reports on meetings between Nelson Mandela and PW Botha, and of his ‘secret’ negotiations with the South African government. Freeing of Walter Sisulu, Ahmed Kathrada and other long-serving political prisoners. Reports on the imminent closure of Kapitan, one of Nelson Mandela’s favourite restaurants since the 1950s. Legalisation of the ANC, and announcement of other reforms by FW De Klerk.
Death sentence in Rivonia trial "unlikely" Note (4 June 1964) Upcoming judgment and sentence in the Rivonia trial Note (2 June 1964) The Australian representative to South Africa has been instructed to register his government's concern over the Rivonia trial. Note (9 June 1964) U.K. should abstain in the vote on the Rivonia resolution by Ivory Coast and Morocco unless is amended ( Add as that America will also abstain) Note ( 10 June 1964) Verdicts in the Rivonia trial Telegram (11 June 1964) Analysis of evidence at the Rivonia trial Report ( 10 June 1964) Decision to defer any attempt by the U.S. to get a reduction in Rivonia trail sentences until the defence has lodged an appeal. Note ( 14 June 1964) Unsigned copy of the Rivonia trial judgment Judgment: Rivonia trial (15 June 1964)
"Solidarity with South Africa" demonstration held in Amsterdam in 1976, with demonstrators carrying placards of Nelson Mandela. Nelson and Winnie Mandela being greeted by thousands of supporters in Leidseplein, Amsterdam in June 1990. Nelson Mandela addressing the crowd at Leidseplein, Amsterdam as well as other images of Nelson Mandela's visit to Amsterdam in 1990. Photographers include Hans van der Bogaard, Roel Rozenburg and Marja Sonneveld.
An album of photographs of Nelson Mandela, including: Portrait photographs of Nelson Mandela, many of which were taken by Eli Weinberg. There are photographs with Kaiser Matanzima, and of Nelson Mandela together with his son, Thembekile, as well as Nelson and Winnie Mandela on their wedding day. Includes photographs of Nelson Mandela wearing traditional beads, Mandela in boxing gear, at his law office, burning his pass, and in disguise while in hiding from the police as the "Black Pimpernel." (1950s - 1960s). Nelson Mandela after his acquittal at the treason trial, with Essop Pahad in the background. Nelson Mandela addressing the All-in-Africa Conference in Pietermaritzburg in 1961. Photographs are by Joe Gqabi. Photographs of Nelson Mandela with military officers in Algiers, and with Oliver Tambo in Addis Ababa, during his secret Africa trip in 1962. Nelson Mandela in Parliament Square, London, 1962. Photographs by Mary Benson. Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu on Robben Island in 1966.The concert in celebration of Mandela's 70th birthday. The 1988 artist's impression of Nelson Mandela. Nelson Mandela's release from prison, including a scene of him addressing a mass gathering in Cape Town on the day of his release from prison. Also featured in these photographs are Winnie Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Cyril Ramaphosa. Photographers include Yunus Mohamed. Post-release portraits, some that originates from the International Defence and Aid Fund. Photographers include Pieter Boersma and Piet den Blanken. Nelson Mandela addressing meetings on his visit to the Netherlands in June 1990. Also featured in these photographs are Winnie Mandela and Thabo Mbeki. Photographers include Jan Stegeman, Pieter Boersma and Kadir van Lohuizen. Nelson Mandela being awarded an honorary doctorate at the University of the Western Cape. Featured in the photographs are Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Professor Jaap Durand and Professor Stanley Ridge. Photographs are by Rashid Lombard. Nelson Mandela alongside a mural in Cape Town. Photograph by the Cape Argus. Nelson Mandela on the platform with Tokyo Sexwale and others at an ANC election mass meeting held at the Kwamazizi Stadium, 12 March 1994. Photographs are by B. Bohler. Photographs of Winnie and Zindzi Mandela, including Winnie in traditional dress, her attendance of political funerals in South Africa in 1985, and Zindzi addressing the crowd at a mass gathering at Jabulani Stadium in 1985. Photographers include Alf Kumalo and Gideon Mendell.
Collection of anti-apartheid memorabilia produced by, amongst other organisations, the ANC, International Defence and Aid Fund, Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa and the Anti-Apartheid Movement. Includes t-shirts and wall hangings.
The personal papers of Mary Benson. The collection includes: Nelson Mandela’s statement from the dock at the Rivonia Trial. Correspondence, reports and statements about the treatment of political prisoners in South Africa; Reports by the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) and Amnesty International. Attempts to publicise the conditions of prisoners, particularly Nelson Mandela, and information about the medical treatment of prisoners. Papers related to Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment, collected by Benson when writing her biography of Mandela, "Nelson Mandela: the Man and the Movement." Correspondence between Mandela and Mary Benson and between Benson and others people mainly related to Mandela and campaigns for his release from prison. Correspondents include Helen Suzman, Elinor Birley, Hilda Bernstein, Oliver Tambo, Winnie Mandela, Denis Healey and Ismail Ayob. Typed notes on Mandela and other prisoners, as well as lists of political prisoners. News clippings concerning Mandela, mainly from British newspapers. Includes reports on the dropping of negligence charges against Mandela in 1967.
Radio South Africa- Interview Radio Today- Dr M Buthelezi, Mr. F.W. De Klerk Report by Manas Tsungu on a meeting between the State President of South Africa, Mr. FW De Klerk and chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi of Kwa Zulu with actuality of the two leaders who refer to the issue of negotiations and the possible release of Nelson Mandela.
South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]
This collection includes documentation concerning the following: Biographies of the Rivonia Trialists. A statement issued by the national executive of the ANC on February 16 1990, in the wake of decisions to unban political organisations, and the impending release of Nelson Mandela. The talks between the ANC and the South African government in 1990, documented in the Pretoria Minute. Festival held in Oslo, celebrating Nelson Mandela's release from prison. Nelson Mandela's visit to Oslo in 1992. Includes correspondence between the International Solidarity Committee of the Norwegian Labour Movement and the ANC Norway Mission. Statement by Nelson Mandela on being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. Birthday greetings (1993). Includes correspondence, minutes of meetings, reports, press statements, pamphlets and news clippings..
Writings, correspondence, legal briefs and printed matter relating to international civil rights cases, world federation and attempt to secure international recognition of habeas corpus due process of law by an American lawyer. Includes clippings of Nelson Mandela, individual rights, release of Nelson Mandela terrorism etc.
Correspondence, reports, campaign documents, press statements and speeches on Irish Anti-Apartheid Movement campaigns for the release of Nelson Mandela. Calls made by the Irish government for Nelson Mandela's release from prison. The unveiling of a Mandela sculpture in Merrion Square, Dublin, and the conferment of the Freedom of the City of Dublin to Mandela. 70th birthday tributes. Preparations for Nelson Mandela's release from prison in 1990 and the organising of a celebration rally in Ireland. Nelson Mandela’s visit to Dublin in 1991. Correspondents includes Dr. Kader Asmal and Louise Asmal, ES Reddy, Ismail Ayob, Ruth Mompati, Sipho Pityana, Frank Aiken (Ireland Minister of External Affairs), Senator George O’Brien, Barry Desmond ,Honorary Secretary, Anti-apartheid Movement) and President Alhaji Shehu Shagari of Nigeria.
Correspondence, minutes of meetings, conference resolutions, reports, press statements, pamphlets and news clippings, concerning Zenani Mandela's visit to Oslo in 1985, and the continued imprisonment of Nelson Mandela and other South African political leaders.
International Solidarity Committee of the Norwegian Labour Movement
Audio recording of an African National Congress (ANC) rally held at the Cape Town Civic Centre on the 13th of September 1993. The speakers included Nelson Mandela, Allan Boesak, Salie Manie and Melanie Verwoerd.
Collection of papers built by Helen Joseph during her lifetime, these relate to her personal fight against apartheid. The collection has papers on her involvement in politics, the Human rights Welfare Committee, the 1956 Treason trial, banning banishment, house arrests relationship with Nelson Mandela and his family - Nelson and Winnie Mandela - Release Mandela Campaign
Collection of photographs covering: Nelson Mandela birthday tributes; Campaigns for Nelson Mandela's release from prison; The Cape Town celebration rally after Nelson Mandela's release from prison. Photographers include Benny Gool, Rashid Lombard and Murray Michel.
A collection consisting primarily of 35mm colour transparencies, covering: International and South African campaigns for the release of Nelson Mandela. Celebrations of Mandela's release from prison. Photographs taken immediately after Mandela's release from prison. Mandela's re-union with Oliver Tambo during his visit to Sweden (1991). Mandela's family home in Qunu. Photographs with Winnie Mandela, Oliver Tambo, Adelaide Tambo, Archbishop Trevor Huddleston and Douglas Hurd. Performers (Johnny Clegg, David Serame, The Manhattans, Jonas Gwangwa and Hugh Masekela) at the Free Mandela / 70th birthday celebration concert, held at Wembley Stadium (1988). Mandela at the Wembley concert that celebrated his release from prison (1990). Portraits of Mandela. Photographers include Paul Weinberg, Gordon Metz, Order Elias on and Anna Zieminski.
Correspondence, pamphlets and messages of support concerning the Nelson Mandela 70th birthday campaign, most of which were produced by the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM). The collection includes pamphlets publicising the Mandela Freedom Ride, as well as messages sent to the African National Congress (ANC) on the occasion of Mandela's 70th birthday from the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Turkey and the Central Committee of the Workers Party of Turkey. There is also correspondence concerning the organising of a tree planting ceremony by the Dumbarton District Council to commemorate Nelson Mandela’s birthday.
Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, including: Correspondence from U Thant to Mr. Souleymane Ould Cheikh Sidya (Chairman of the Afro-Asian Group and permanent representative to the UN) about the arrest of Nelson Mandela by the South African government and the response received by U Thant from the South African government that the matter essentially falls within the jurisdiction of the Republic of South Africa and that it is not accountable to the UN, 1962. Statements by anti-apartheid leaders about the racial policies of the South African government, including a statement by Nelson Mandela (quoted in the South African House of Assembly by Helen Suzman), Yusuf Dadoo and Duma Nokwe, 1963. Notes on the forthcoming discussion on the South Africa question in the Security Council by ES Reddy, including the expectation of death sentences for Nelson Mandela and other Rivonia Trialists, and the role of the UN beyond the Rivonia Trial, 1964. Notes on the Rivonia Trial, and a Security Council discussion on the South African question, with references to the adoption of the resolution on South African prisoners and the Rivonia Trial, a proposal for a separate emergency draft resolution on the Rivonia Trial, possible repercussions of death sentences in the Rivonia Trial, the advantages of adopting a resolution in advance of the sentences, the possibility of death sentences for Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and at least three other accused, Nelson Mandela and Sisulu reported to be disinclined to appeal their sentences with the implication that the time available for external pressure would be limited, and the possibility of long prison terms, 1964. A memorandum from ES Reddy (Principal Secretary, UN Special Committee Against Apartheid) to Vladimir Suslov (Under-Secretary General for Political and Security Council Affairs), enclosing a copy of a statement made by Chief Albert Luthuli on the Rivonia Trial, to be released immediately after the sentencing of the Rivonia Trialists, 1964. A letter addressed to Mr. Matthys I. Botha, South African representative to the UN about the death sentences imposed on Vuyisile Mini, Zinakile Mkaba and Wilson Khayinga, and the threats of the same penalty being imposed on other political Trialists, 1964. A press statement issued by South African Prime Minister, HF Verwoerd concerning the sentences passed in the Rivonia Trial, 1964.
Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, including: The charter of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), with a resolution on apartheid and racial discrimination, calling for the immediate release of Nelson Mandela, Robert Sobukwe and all other South African political prisoners, 1963. News clippings from the New York Times, with reports on the torture of South African detainees, including reports on the detention of Winnie Mandela and an application to protect her from threats by the South African police, 1970. UN Security Council and OAU resolutions and declarations on decolonisation and apartheid, many of which call for the release of all South African political prisoners, 1964 - 1971. Correspondence between the UN and OAU.
Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, include: UN press statement calling for the abandonment of the Rivonia Trial and the release of leaders such as Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu. Letter from Chief Albert Luthuli, President of the African National Congress, sent to the UN Secretary-General, U Thant, about the South African crisis. Albert Luthuli's letter refers the Rivonia Trial and the danger that some or all of the accused could be given the death sentence, and requests that the UN help to save the lives of the Rivonia Trialists. Statement by the UN Special Committee against Apartheid, with reference to the Rivonia Trialists. A record of the 1128th meeting of the UN Security Council, with commentary from Mr. such, the Chinese representative, saying that the Rivonia accused are "on their way to becoming apartheid martyrs." International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) memorandum about relief for the victims of political persecution in South Africa, with reference to the ongoing Rivonia Trial of Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and others.
Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, including: UN Security Council resolutions on decolonisation and apartheid, many of which call for the release of all South African political prisoners, 1964 - 1965. UN Special Committee Against Apartheid recommendations to the Security Council, including calls for the release of all political prisoners, 1962 - 1969. A report to the Secretary-General by the Expert Group on South Africa, with reference to opposition to South Africa being constituted as a republic, and Nelson Mandela's role in the call for a nationwide stay-at-home strike as a means of protest. Nelson Mandela's renewal of the call for a national convention, following the call made at the All in Africa Conference of African Leaders (Pietermaritzburg, 1961), and a quote by Nelson Mandela against racism from his 1962 trial, 1961 - 1964. The text of a letter from Mary Benson to the UN Special Committee Against Apartheid enclosing a statement made by Abram Fischer, Q.C., with reference to the Defiance Campaign, Congress of the People, Treason Trial, Nelson Mandela in hiding, the formation of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the purchasing of the Lilliesleaf Farm and the Rivonia Trial, 1966.
Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, including: The General Assembly Resolution 1761 (XVII) of November 1962, requesting that the South African government abandon all arbitrary trials and release all political prisoners. The General Assembly Resolution A/RES/1881 (XVIII) on the policies of apartheid of the government of South Africa, with reference to reports of the upcoming Rivonia Trial, with the possibility of death sentences for a large number of prisoners, 1963. Notes on the question of apartheid in South Africa, including a review of recent UN proceedings that call for the release of all political prisoners, 1964. Security Council resolutions calling for the release of all political prisoners, 1963 - 1964. Security Council resolution S/5761, calling for the ending of the [Rivonia Trial], and the granting of amnesty to all political prisoners and detainees, particularly the defendants in the Rivonia Trial, 1964.
Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, U Thant, include: Text of a statement by Achkar Marot, the representative of Guinea, to the UN, refers to Nelson Mandela's imprisonment on Robben Island. Response by the South African government to two articles published in the "UN Monthly Chronicle," which discusses the South African government's position on the Rivonia Trial, including Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock. The conclusion and recommendations of the International Seminar on Apartheid, Racial Discrimination and Colonialism in Southern Africa held in Kitwe, Zambia (1967). The conference recommended special campaigns around the incarceration of outstanding leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Robert Sobukwe and Bram Fischer.
Files of the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General, Kurt Waldheim, including: Documents issued by the UN unit on Apartheid concerning campaigns for the release of all political prisoners. The text of a statement by the chairperson of the UN Centre Against Apartheid regarding the imprisonment of both Nelson and Winnie Mandela, with extracts of a telegram received from Zenani and Zindzi Mandela on the continued imprisonment of their parents. Correspondence concerning the 1976 Day of Solidarity with South African political prisoners, and a statement by the Secretary-General to the UN Special Committee Against Apartheid. Documents relating to the 1977, 1979 and 1981 commemorations of South African political prisoners, with references made to long-serving prisoners such as Nelson Mandela and Zephania Mothopeng. A press release in which the chairperson of the South Africa Trust Fund, Anders I. Thunborg, calls for the release of Nelson Mandela. A press release in which the chairperson of the Special Committee Against Apartheid, ES Reddy, expresses his satisfaction with the campaign to free South African political prisoners, in which he quotes from the speech delivered by Zindzi Mandela at Wits University in 1980. Correspondents include ES Reddy, Leslie O. Harriman and Kurt Waldheim
People for Southern Collection of material including: News clippings on the situation in South Africa in the mid 1980s including violent incidences in different parts of South Africa, unrest in townships, riot police clashes with protesters, resistance campaigns by students, press statements condemning the apartheid system by both Zenani Mandela as well as Allan Boesak. Appeals to support for Winnie Mandela by the Episcopal Church Africa.
Collection of materials including: Correspondence on "Free Mandela" appeals from the Committee of Southern Africa and responses from the US Department of State. Correspondence on "Free Mandela" appeals from Centre against Apartheid. Correspondence "Free Mandela" appeals from Africa Resource Center (CA, USA). Correspondence "Free Mandela" appeals from General Theological Seminary (NY, USA. Correspondence from The Episcopal Churchmen for Southern Africa (NY, USA) sent to among others, the US President advocating for freeing of South African and Namibia political prisoners. Several leaflet copies of the "Free Mandela" campaign. Text of Nelson Mandela's Rivonia Trial speech published by Christian Action and printed by A G Bishop & Sons Ltd (Kent, UK). News clippings on the situation in South Africa in the early 1980s including strike action by labour unions, condemnation of the government by church organizations, Mrs. Helen Suzman's visit of Robben Island and meeting Mr. Nelson Mandela and Mr. Andimba Toivo Ja Toivo, restricted family visits by Winnie Mandela, free Mandela campaigns conducted both in South Africa and around the world,
Collection of materials including: News clippings in English from newspapers in the US and UK concerning the situation in South Africa during the 1960's. Text of Nelson Mandela's Rivonia Trial speech published by Christian Action and printed by A G Bishop & Sons Ltd (Kent, UK). Draft resolutions by the Executive Council of Episcopal Church on the Church's financial involvement with American banks that are members of a consortium extending credit to the South African government . Two copies dated 1968 and 1969 of newsletters published by the Information Service of South Africa. Open letter from The World Student Christian Federation titled The Banks and Apartheid. Testimony of Reverend Robert Chapmen presented at the hearing of the Executive and Finance Committee of the Executive Council of the Episcopal Church in 1969.
Incoming and outgoing correspondence concerning Nelson Mandela. Includes: Letter from Archbishop Trevor Huddleston requesting that Archbishop Tutu serve as a patron of the Nelson Mandela International Reception Committee (1990). Response from Archbishop Tutu’s office to Saka Acquaye (Ghana) about the separation of President Mandela and Mrs. Winnie Mandela’s (1994). Letter from A .Boraine about the possibility of Nelson Mandela’s release from prison (1985). Letter from the State President’s office concerning the Nobel Committee’s decision to award the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize to Mandela (1993). Correspondence from Archbishop Tutu to the Minister of Justice requesting permission to visit Robben Island and Pollsmoor prisoners (1987), and a request to visit Nelson Mandela at the Constantia berg Clinic (1988). Letter from Archbishop Tutu to the State President, in appreciation of Nelson Mandela’s release from prison (1990). Invitation to a United Nations Human Rights Day in honour of Nelson Mandela and FW De Klerk (1993).
Collection of documents including correspondence, newsletters, pamphlets, press clippings, memoranda and media releases. The subjects covered include: Biographical material on Nelson and Winnie Mandela. Robben Island. Nelson Mandela's health during his imprisonment, and calls for independent medical treatment. Petitions and campaigns for Nelson Mandela's release from prison. US House Resolution 430 entitled, "The Mandela Freedom Resolution," submitted by Geo W. Crockett Jr., Hamilton Fish Jr., Claude Pepper and Jim Leach, calling for Nelson Mandela's release from prison. Prison conditions. The work of the International Anti-apartheid Movement, particularly the Free South Africa Movement (USA). International tributes, such as the Nelson Mandela bust on Trafalgar Square (London) and the statue at Merrion Square (Dublin). Honorary degrees conferred on Mandela. Seventieth birthday tributes. Nelson Mandela's release from prison in February 1990, and his visit to the US later that year. The International Reception Committee, established to welcome Nelson Mandela after his release from prison. Marches and rallies held in the US celebrating his release from prison. Nelson Mandela's address to the US Congress, and remarks made to newspaper editors and writers in the US on the new South Africa. Political negotiations, the future of sanctions, the reasons for his release from prison and the armed struggle. Speeches, statements and articles by Mandela. The list of correspondents includes Dennis Brutus, John Fiordelisi, Randall Robinson, Archbishop Trevor Huddleston and Geo W. Crockett Jr. News clippings are from the Boston Sunday Globe, Chicago Sunday Times, Chicago Tribune, Ebony Magazine, New York Post, New York Times, State News and USA Today.
Correspondence, memoranda, campaign materials and lists. The collection includes: Correspondence between the Comite Zuid-Afrika and the African National Congress (ANC) London office concerning the Rivonia Trial and pressure being placed on the Dutch government to condemn the trial. Campaigns for the release of the Rivonia Trialists, and about 5000 political prisoners in South Africa. Open letter by the Anti-apartheid Movement, soliciting support from abroad for those under house arrest in South Africa, and encouraging that letters of support is sent to Nelson Mandela and Robert Sobukwe at Pretoria Central Prison (1962). The collection also includes: References to the Freedom Charter and the Congress of the People. List of South Africans under house arrest, together with the conditions of their five-year banning orders. They include Helen Joseph, Ahmed Kathrada, Walter Sisulu, Jack and Rica Hodgson, Jack Tarshish, Brian and Sonia Bunting, Roley Arenstein, Michael Harmel, Moses Kotane, Lionel Bernstein, Alfred Nzo, Thomas Nkobi, MacDonald Maseko, Duma Nokwe, Cecil Williams and Alex La Guma. Correspondence from Karel Roskam to Christian Action concerning the raising of funds in the Netherlands for the Defence and Aid Fund set up by Canon Collins (1959 - 1960).
Pamphlets, newsletters and memoranda of the Release Mandela Campaign (RMC) and the Nelson Mandela Reception Committee concerning: Launch of the Release Mandela Campaign. Reports from the Release Mandela Campaign. Organising of the 1985 mass march to Pollsmoor Prison. Welcoming home of Govan Mbeki after his release from prison.
Report of January 1966 - On The crisis in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) The arrest of Bram Fischer on the 11th October 1965 Campaign for the release of Bram Fischer and the other political prisoners Report of June 1966 on: The disgraceful conditions of human rights that exist in South Africa 25th June 1966 11th celebration of the South African Freedom Day - Outlines details of the programme Demands the release of political prisoners Bram Fischer- Address by Robert Resha of the ANC
Correspondence, pamphlets, newsletters, publications and press statements concerning the following: The Rivonia Trial, including a summarized version of Nelson Mandela’s defence statement at the trial and the script of a radio broadcast on the Rivonia Trial (36 min.) (1964 - 1975). The World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners, and a summary of support for the campaign (1964). The persecution of Winnie Mandela (1971). Political prisoners in South Africa (1975). The Treason Trial, including schedules C and D of the indictment, a list of the accused and their association with certain speeches, gatherings and publications (1956 - 1961). Biographical profiles of Nelson Mandela, Govan Mbeki, Andrew Mlangeni, Raymond Mhlaba, Dennis Goldberg, Walter Sisulu, Lionel Bernstein, Elias Motsoaledi and Ahmed Kathrada. Appeals for the release of Nelson Mandela including an appeal to the people of South Africa smuggled out from Robben Island, with an introduction from Oliver Tambo (1980). A copy of the international declaration for the release of Nelson Mandela, initiated by Archbishop Trevor Huddleston, as well as a list of signatories to the declaration (1981). The Sunday Post campaign for Nelson Mandela’s release(1980 - 1981). United Nations notes on the Release Mandela Campaign, a statement by Chief Albert Luthuli on the sentencing of the Rivonia Trialists (1964), extracts from an address by H.E. Mr. B Akporode Clark to non-governmental organisations at UN headquarters (1980), biographical profiles on Nelson Mandela, and the Free South African Political Prisoners Campaign (1980). A survey of events and actions in honour of and for the release of Nelson Mandela, prepared by the British Anti-Apartheid Movement, October 1984. Observances of Nelson Mandela’s 60th birthday (1978). The collection also consists of bound volumes of Spark, Guardian and New Age newspapers, for which Brian Bunting served as editor. They include newspaper reports on Nelson Mandela’s 1962 Africa trip showing photographs of Nelson Mandela together with Oliver Tambo in Algeria, Nelson Mandela’s tour of Algerian army camps and headquarters together with Robert Resha, Nelson Mandela meeting with Tunisian government representatives, and Nelson Mandela together with Colonel Tadenesse Biru in Ethiopia.
Materials documenting the work of the Washington Office on Africa, founded in 1972 to support freedom struggles in Southern Africa. Included in the collection are: Tributes to Nelson Mandela, some of which commemorate his 65th birthday. US House Resolution 430 entitled the Mandela Freedom Resolution, calling for Mandela's release from prison, and the lifting of state imposed banning orders on Winnie Mandela. Nelson Mandela's visit to the United States after his release from prison, the establishment of International Reception Committee to promote and co-ordinate activities during his visit to the United States.
Memoranda, correspondence, reports, messages of support, newsletters, news clippings, minutes of meetings, financial reports, statements, project evaluations, budgets and campaign materials of the AABN, include: Activities of the AABN in their calls for the release of Nelson Mandela (1981 - 1982). Action by 1400 mayors from across the world, petitioning the release of Nelson Mandela and other political prisoners (1982). Campaigns for Nelson Mandela's release from prison (1985 - 1990). Nelson Mandela's visits to the Netherlands in March and June 1990. This includes notes on the policies of the Dutch government towards South Africa, as well as lists of delegates, the list of South Africans to meet Nelson Mandela at Schipol airport, itineraries and programmes. The Welcome Mandela Committee including its contacts and details of activities. These include both local and international activities in which the Committee was involved including a Welcome Mandela Festival (1989 - 1990). The 1989 political prisoner hunger strike on Robben Island, and a memorandum issued by prisoners. The full text of Nelson Mandela's speech on the Grand Parade in Cape Town on the day of his release from prison (1990). The Mandela International Reception Committee. Reactions to the news of Nelson Mandela's release from prison.
Collection of Nelson Mandela posters, most of which were produced by international anti-apartheid organisations. The posters cover campaigns for the release of Nelson Mandela and all South African political prisoners, Nelson Mandela birthday tributes, as well as profiles of the Rivonia Trialists. The collection also includes ANC election campaign posters.
African National Congress (SA). Proceedings of the ANC 48th National Conference 1991. Statement of the deputy president of the African National Congress at the opening of the ANC National Conference July 1991. Strategy and tactics document. Rebuilding the organisation- document. Closing address of Nelson Mandela
Records of the African National Congress mission in Zimbabwe The records include correspondence and photographs on: The Nelson Mandela Freedom at 70 campaign; The conferment of the Freedom of the City of Kabwe on Mandela; Nelson Mandela's visit to Zimbabwe; Correspondence from President Mugabe, after Nelson Mandela's release from prison. Free Mandela campaign (photographs) Mandela N.R - Interview
ANC -U.K. Ireland Mission Office is the additional part of the ANC London Mission office The office has information on Arrest of Nelson Mandela in1963. Birthday 1993. Children's correspondence sent to Nelson Mandela after release. Congratulatory messages upon release. Correspondence 1989-1993. Nelson Mandela Freedom at 70, London concert 1988. Interviews. Correspondence on Overseas visits. Poetry on Nelson Mandela. Correspondence on Black ethnic minority . Seminars Manuscripts Campaigns and events Free Mandela and all political prisoners Photographs Mandela International reception committee, Nelson Mandela Freedom march, Nelson Mandela’s visits in April 1990, Nelson and Winnie Mandela Also referred to as London Mission
Records of the African National Congress Norway mission. The records include correspondence, news clippings, statements and photographs concerning: The Nelson Mandela 70th birthday concert; Congratulatory messages on Mandela’s release from prison; Nelson Mandela’s visits to Norway, and the work of the Mandela Reception Committee (1990 - 1992). The Nelson Mandela Memorial Coin (1991). The awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to Nelson Mandela (1993). Speeches delivered by Nelson Mandela during his visits to Scandinavian countries Mandela Nelson -visit to Norway 1992 Athens Medical Centre: Correspondence - Invitation to Mandela to visit Greece
Records of the African National Congress Netherlands Mission. The collection includes: Correspondence, invitations, programmes, reports, news clippings and speeches concerning Nelson Mandela’s visits to the Netherlands (1990 - 1994). News clippings, newsletters, memoranda and pamphlets of the Nelson Mandela International Reception Committee (1989 - 1990). The death of ANC President, Oliver Tambo, and the statement delivered by Nelson Mandela at the funeral. The full text of Mandela’s rejection of PW Botha’s offer of conditional release in 1989, and a speech delivered by Mandela to the Finance Week Breakfast Club, 1991 ANC election campaign fund-raising materials. Memoranda from Mandela to FW De Klerk (1992). Various news clippings on Mandela (1988 - 1990). Mandela visit to the Netherlands
African National Congress (ANC) Netherlands Mission
Records of the African National Congress Italian Mission. The records include correspondence, news clippings and reports that cover international calls for Nelson Mandela’s release from prison, and international awards bestowed on him such as the Freedom of the City of Rome and the Freedom of the City of Pordenone.
Records of the African National Congress German Mission. The collection has An interview with Winnie Mandela by Africa Now concerning Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment, December 1982. Correspondence, memoranda, resolutions and working principles of the Release Mandela Campaign (RMC) (1980 - 1988). Letters to Mandela from children in Germany (1988). News clippings concerning Mandela (1985 -1990). Correspondence, memoranda and statements of the Mandela International Release Committee. Correspondence and programmes in relation to Mandela’s visits to Germany (1990 - 1993). Miscellaneous materials concerning international awards conferred on Mandela such as the Nehru Award, published speeches, statements and tributes (including 70th birthday tributes) and a statement by Oliver Tambo on the conferment of the Nehru Award on Mandela. - News clippings, including reports of CIA involvement in Mandela’s arrest in 1962. - Nelson Mandela concert in Hamburg - Nelson Mandela exhibition on the struggle - Speeches 1961- 1964
Records of the African National Congress French Mission. The records include: Correspondence, news clippings, pamphlets, petitions and statements concerning campaigns in France for Nelson Mandela’s release from prison (1985 - 1989). Correspondence and news clippings concerning international awards and tributes conferred on Mandela, such as the Nobel Peace Prize. And the inauguration of Boulevard Nelson Mandela, some of these were conferred in absentia and presented to the assassinated ANC activist, Dulcie September. Correspondence and lists concerning honorary citizenships conferred on Mandela (1985 - 1989). News clippings in the run up to, and reporting Mandela’s release from prison. The collection includes some of the original certificates awarded in (1985 - 1993). - Leaflets and copies of photographs (1960s -1990s). - Miscellaneous correspondence concerning Mandela (1990). - Awards to Nelson Mandela - Mandela, Nelson and Winnie - Mandela Nelson 1990 - Mandela Libre Comitre Francaise - Mandela - declaration - Mandela Parle ANC Paris - Humanite liberate pour Mandela - List of noble peace prize nominees leaflets
Records of the African National Congress Canada mission. The records include correspondence, memoranda, minutes, briefing notes, financial statements, discussion papers, photographs and video material. The subjects covered: Calls for Nelson Mandela’s release from prison, including the Freedom at 70 campaign (1988). Mandela’s release from prison, the first anniversary of his release, and documentation on the significance of his release from prison (1990 - 1991). Mandela birthday celebrations in Canada, and messages of goodwill sent to him (1990). Mandela’s visits to Canada and the USA (1990). The Nelson Mandela Reception Committee, the Nelson Mandela Fundraising Committee and the International Mandela Reception Committee (1990). Awards and honours conferred on Mandela, and various letters of tribute sent to him (1990 - 1993). The ANC-Mandela Support Coalition (1990 - 1991). The Nelson Mandela Fund (1990 - 1991). Speeches delivered by and on behalf of Mandela, including addresses during his 1990 visits to Canada and the United States, and during his visit to Zambia (1979 - 1990). The South African negotiation process, including memoranda between Mandela and FW De Klerk.
The records of the ANC Australia Mission have also material from New Zealand and the surrounding Islands the mission office was known as the Australasia and the Pacific Mission. The records of the office consists of correspondence on ANC mission material, activities of the ANC in the region. Free Nelson Mandela. Mandela Nelson Messages of support upon release. Mandela Nelson birthday messages 1989. Release Mandela (Memorabilia). Mandela Nelson (audiocassette) Photographs of the ANC community and on the visit of Mr. Nelson Mandela to Australia
ANC presidents office material hasSpeeches and statements by ANC president Oliver Tambo includes a letters from Bobben Island and Pollsmoor by Nelson Mandela nd, 1978-1988, Nelson Mandela International tribute, Release Nelson Mandela and all the political prisoners campaign, Nelson Mandela's reply to PW Botha. Statement of the opening of the conference by Nelson Mandela.
Collection of political cartoons produced by Abe Berry, former cartoonist for the Star Newspaper. Most of the cartoons were produced for the Star Newspaper and some for City Press. The cartoons cover Nelson Mandela in relation to subjects such as: The South African 'Bantustan' system. Speculation about his release from prison. The Organisation of African Unity and the International Anti-Apartheid Movement. Free Mandela campaigns. The unbanning of the African National Congress and the South African Communist Party. Nelson Mandela's release from prison. Awards and honours conferred on Nelson Mandela including the naming of streets, schools and other public spaces in his honour. The South African negotiation process.