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Canon Collins Educational Trust for Southern Africa

The Canon Collins Trust was founded by the British Defence and Aid Fund (BDAF) in 1981 to assist South African and Namibian refugee students to receive higher education and training. Students received their training in the UK and independent African states. It merged with the Legal Assistance Trust in 2012 and continues to operate as Canon Collins Educational and Legal Assistance Trust.

Anti-Apartheid Movement Austria [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung Osterreich] : [Part 1]

The AAM Austria started in 1977 in response to the Soweto uprisings with a small group of people who lobbied the general public and government to take a stand against apartheid. It organised numerous boycott and solidarity campaigns, pushing the Austrian government to take a more anti-apartheid position. It gave direct support to the liberation movements. Besides solidarity with South Africa, the AAM also worked for Namibia. It was a member of the European anti-apartheid movements group. It dissolved in 1993 to continue as the Southern Africa Documentation and Cooperation Centre (SADOCC).

Life Under Apartheid Collection

The programmes and documents in this collection illustrate what life was like for ordinary South Africans under Apartheid, as well as documenting key political moments.

Items related directly to the Rivonia Trial:
-BBC Television programme: Panorama: Race Problems Around the World. The documentary deals with the growth of racial tension in the Britain and the USA as Mandela is imprisoned for life. This programme was first broadcast on 15 June 1964. 50 minutes, 25 seconds in length. Contains a report by Robin Day from Pretoria where Mandela and others have been sentenced in the Rivonia Trial. Includes interviews with those who condemn the trial and sentencing: Helen Suzman, Alan Paton, Winnie Mandela.
-Letter from a cameraman about "Panorama" programme (28 June 19964). This letter was sent by Ernest Christie to the series producer David Wheeler on South African press reaction to Robin Day's segment in the "Panorama: Race Problems Around the World" which he had filmed.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

Action Committee on Southern Africa [Actie Komitee Zuidelijk Afrika] : [Part 1]

AKZA was a national organisation based in the Flemish-speaking part of Belgium. It operated from 1972-1991 and developed out of progressive student organisations. It started as the Flemish Angola Committee and supported the liberation movements directly. They organised numerous boycott campaigns and was instrumental in the formation of the largest social action coalition in Flanders, the Flemish Anti-Apartheid Coalition (Vlaamse Anti-Apartheid Koalitie - VAAK). It also collaborated with other AAMs and was part of the Liaison Group of Anti-Apartheid Movements within the European Community (known as the Liaison Group).

Oxfam Solidarity Belgium [Oxfam Solidariteit Belgi

Oxfam Solidarity Belgium started in 1964 as an organisation geared towards solidarity with struggles for self-determination. It was made up of three separate sections, and it was the Oxfam Solidarity section that joined anti-apartheid activities from around 1973 till 1994. Oxfam mainly joined campaigns organised by the Committee against Colonialism and Apartheid and the Flemish Anti-Apartheid Coalition (VAAK) but also organised its own demonstrations against apartheid. It was very active in the fruit boycott campaign and the campaigns against banks with ties with South Africa. It supported the Kagiso Trust Fund and the ANC office in Brussels.

Peace [Vrede]

Peace was a national organisation that operated from approximately 1971 to 1985. It participated in the boycott campaigns and the activities of the Flemish Anti-Apartheid Coalition (Vlaamse Anti-Apartheid Koalitie - VAAK) and Boycott Apartheid.

Anti-Apartheid Movement Austria [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung Osterreich] : [Part 5]

The AAM Austria started in 1977 in response to the Soweto uprisings with a small group of people who lobbied the general public and government to take a stand against apartheid. It organised numerous boycott and solidarity campaigns, pushing the Austrian government to take a more anti-apartheid position. It gave direct support to the liberation movements. Besides solidarity with South Africa, the AAM also worked for Namibia. It was a member of the European anti-apartheid movements group. It dissolved in 1993 to continue as the Southern Africa Documentation and Cooperation Centre (SADOCC).

International Labour Organisation

The ILO is a specialised agency of the UN, and was founded in 1919 to work for the betterment of people in their place of work under conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. It organised numerous conferences on South Africa and apartheid and was active on boycott issues related to workers’ rights.

Country Committee for South Africa Action [Landskomiteen Sydafrika-Aktion] (Danish Anti Apartheid Movement) : [Part 2]

The Country Committee for South Africa Action (LSA) was formed in 1978 by several organisations and political parties. It was one of the first organisations to co-ordinate campaigns at the local level. It organised several information campaigns involving speaking tours of ANC members as well as cultural events. It continues to operate as Africa Contact.

Programme to Combat Racism : World Council of Churches : [Part 1]

The Programme to Combat Racism started in 1968 as part of the WCC Programme Unit on Justice and Service. Its aim was to develop policies and programmes contributing to the liberation of victims of racism. Much of its attention and focus was on southern Africa, especially apartheid and the divestment campaign. It established a special fund from which donations to liberation movements were made and to solidarity organisations around the world.

Swiss Anti-Apartheid Movement : French-speaking branch [Mouvement Anti-Apartheid Suisse] : [Part 2]

The Anti-Apartheid Movement of Geneva (MAAG) was founded in 1965 as the French-speaking branch of the national anti-apartheid movement. The organisation changed its name to MAAS in 1970. The initiators of MAAS had mainly a religious background. Both MAAS and its German-speaking sister branch AAB were co-ordinated by a common national committee. MAAS dissolved in 1994.

Swiss Anti-Apartheid Movement : French-speaking branch [Mouvement Anti-Apartheid Suisse] : [Part 3]

The Anti-Apartheid Movement of Geneva (MAAG) was founded in 1965 as the French-speaking branch of the national anti-apartheid movement. The organisation changed its name to MAAS in 1970. The initiators of MAAS had mainly a religious background. Both MAAS and its German-speaking sister branch AAB were co-ordinated by a common national committee. MAAS dissolved in 1994.

Swiss Anti-Apartheid Movement : German-speaking branch [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung der Schweiz] : [Part 2]

The Swiss German-speaking branch AAB was established on 1 March 1975 with the secretariat based in Zurich. The AAB organised numerous demonstrations, protest actions, conferences and seminars. Both AAB and its sister branch, MAAS, were co-ordinated by a common national committee. AAB activities were supported by various religious and social organisations. The AAB initiated the establishment of two other organisations, namely the Früchteboykott (Fruit Boycott) and the Aktion Finanzplatz Schweiz-Dritte Welt. The AAB changed its name to AAB Südliches Afrika in 1994, and MAAS dissolved in the same year.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

The UNHCR is the UN agency for the protection and care of refugees. It started to operate in 1950, based on the Geneva Refugee Convention. Besides playing a role in improving the status of refugees through international agreements and measures at national level, it also works at a practical level. It supported various anti-apartheid liberation movements.

Anti-Apartheid Movement Germany [Anti-Apartheid Bewegung] : [Part 1]

The Anti-Apartheid Movement Germany (AAB) operated from 1974 till 1994. It was formed on the initiative of the Mainz Working Group on Southern Africa (MAKSA). It was very active in the campaigns against the arms trade with South Africa, the release of Nelson Mandela, as well as the fruit, sport, Royal Dutch Shell and cultural boycott. It consisted of a network of local groups and worked with a variety of peace and religious organisations. In the late 1970s/early 1980s it used shareholders meetings (by buying shares) to pressurise banks not to deal with South Africa and pressured the Federal government to take an active anti-apartheid position. The AAB also participated in the Liaison Group. In May 1994 the AAB changed its name to Afrika-Süd Aktionsbündnis, which continued to carry out solidarity work with Southern Africa. Since the end of August 2001, Afrika-Süd Aktionsbündnis was dissolved and Koordination Südliches Afrika (KOSA, Co-ordination for Southern Africa) became the successor organisation.

Evangelical Women’s Group Germany [Evangelische Frauenarbeit in Deutschland - Frauen gegen Apartheid] : [Part 1]

This women’s group of the Protestant churches started its activities in 1977 with a boycott of South African fruit and established Frauen gegen Apartheid. It operated till 1993. It also campaigned against the Krugerrand and bank loans. For 15 years, they organised a vigil every Thursday in front of the South African Consulate.

World University Service - Denmark [Solidaritet og Bistand]

The World University Service Denmark (WUS-D) started in 1966 as part of WUS International. It became independent in 1970. It started its solidarity activities in 1966 and became a member of the Anti-Apartheid Committee. It supported the liberation movements in Southern Africa. It distributed funds to the South African Committee for Higher Education (SACHED) and other bursary programmes. WUS continues its activities now as IBIS.

Country Committee for South Africa Action [Landskomiteen Sydafrika-Aktion] (Danish Anti Apartheid Movement) : [Part 1]

The Country Committee for South Africa Action (LSA) was formed in 1978 by several organisations and political parties. It was one of the first organisations to co-ordinate campaigns at the local level. It organised several information campaigns involving speaking tours of ANC members as well as cultural events. It continues to operate as Africa Contact.

South Africa Contact [Sydafrika Kontakt]

South Africa Contact was founded in 1978 by several political parties, trade unions and other organisations to work against colonialism and oppression in Southern Africa. After the liberation of Angola, Mozambique and Zimbabwe it concentrated its activities towards establishing an economic and cultural boycott of South Africa.

Finnish Africa Committee

The FAC started in 1970 and organised information campaigns for trade unions, and political parties. It established, together with the Finnish Peace Committee, the fundraising organisation Peace Fund in 1973 to support liberation movements in Southern Africa. It focused more and more on apartheid as from the late 1970s and organised boycott campaigns.

Movement Against Racism and for Friendship Among Peoples [Mouvement Contre le Racisme et pour l'Amitié entre les Peuples]

MRAP was established in 1941 under the name Mouvement National Contre le Racisme (National Movement Against Racism) as a general anti-racism organisation. It changed its name to MRAP in 1949. It worked with other national and international organisations on anti-apartheid campaigns.

National Gathering against Apartheid [Rencontre National contre l’Apartheid] : [Part 1]

RNCA was a national organisation which started in the 1970s as L’Association Française d’Amitié avec les Peuples d’Afrique (AFASPA). AFASPA was created by trade unionists and anti-colonialists and most of it activities were focused on the French colonies. In 1986 RNCA was formed by AFASPA to focus solely on anti-apartheid activities. In the beginning it mainly worked towards the implementation of sanctions, but it later became a strong supporter of the ANC office in Paris. RNCA continues to operate as Rencontre National avec le People d’Afrique du Sud (RENAPAS).

National Gathering against Apartheid [Rencontre National contre l’Apartheid] : [Part 2]

RNCA was a national organisation which started in the 1970s as L’Association Française d’Amitié avec les Peuples d’Afrique (AFASPA). AFASPA was created by trade unionists and anti-colonialists and most of it activities were focused on the French colonies. In 1986 RNCA was formed by AFASPA to focus solely on anti-apartheid activities. In the beginning it mainly worked towards the implementation of sanctions, but it later became a strong supporter of the ANC office in Paris. RNCA continues to operate as Rencontre National avec le People d’Afrique du Sud (RENAPAS).

Criminal Court Case No. 253/1963 (State Versus N Mandela and Others)

The Rivonia Trial was the first time that the state used its powers under the Acts, that banned the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) in 1960, to arrest and prosecute the top leadership structure of the largest internal anti-apartheid organisation involved in the struggle for a democratic South Africa. This trial gave Nelson Mandela the opportunity to proclaim the aim and goal of the ANC from the dock to the public at large. The court case led to the imprisonment of leaders such as Nelson Mandela on Robben Island and other prisons until their release in 1990.

National Archives of South Africa (NASA)

Mandela: The Living Legend

This two-part documentary series stands as the definitive film biography of Nelson Mandela. Each program meticulously chronicles his powerful story through archival footage and exclusive interviews, while unprecedented access to Mandela offers an intimate look into his life today. Friends and world leaders interviewed include former President Bill Clinton, Fidel Castro, and Archbishop Desmond Tutu. A BBCW Production. 2-part series, 51 minutes each.

BBC Press Office

Mandela

Political biography of Nelson Mandela and his unique role in the liberation struggle in South Africa. Includes archive material of the Treason trial, the Rivonia trial and a filmed interview while underground. Directed by Lionel Ngakane and Niven Howie. Produced by Divemay Films. Edited by Julia Beer.

Untitled

British Library Newspaper Collection

Collections includes all UK national daily and Sunday newspapers from 1801 to the present, most UK and Irish regional and local newspapers, selected newspapers from around the world in European languages, a range of UK and Irish popular periodicals, mostly published weekly and fortnightly.

These would include coverage of the Rivonia Trial.

Untitled

African Writers' Club: BBC Africa Services Collection

Talk about the struggle of black people of South Africa living under apartheid. The speaker talks about the role of the African National Congress (ANC) in the fight for freedom. The names of many freedom fighters are listed. There is also a detailed discussion about the 'Rivonia Treason Trial'.

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

Rivonia Trial, South Africa, 1963-4: Nelson Mandela Dictabelt Dubbings

Dubbings of seven dictabelts loaned by the National Archives of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, of court recordings made at the Court of Justice in Pretoria on 20 April 1964. The blue 'dictabelts' are a type of audio recording, developed by the Dictaphone company, which was mainly used in offices between the 1940s and the 1960s. The short broad plastic belts were capable of being flattened and posted but could not be wiped and reused. It appears that the whole Rivonia Trial was recorded on dictabelts in line with normal court procedure at the time. These dubbings comprise only the opening of the defence case by Defence Counsel Bram Fischer, followed by interjections from Justice Quartus de Wet and Prosecutor Percy Yutar, then a three-hour speech by Accused Number One (Nelson Mandela). Extracts from the recordings have been published by SABC entitled 'The voice of Nelson Mandela: extracts from famous speeches', SABC/EMI, 2002 (EMI 724353736521; NSA shelfmark 1CD0189137).

Transcripts available.

Untitled

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 1]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

Hackney Trades Council

The Hackney Trades Council was a trade union organisation that was involved in a wide variety of local and national campaigns and issues, including the anti-apartheid movement.

Anti-Apartheid Movement, London (London Anti-Apartheid Committee) branch : [Part 1]

AAM London was the umbrella organisation for the 32 anti-apartheid groups in the Greater London area, and a regional committee of the national anti-apartheid movement. It took an active role in promoting the boycott movement, encouraging local groups to picket supermarkets, branches of Barclays Bank, Shell garages and other organisations supporting apartheid. It also encouraged involvement by the trade unions and churches, among many other organisations, in the anti-apartheid struggle.

British Defence and Aid Fund Southern Africa : [Part 2]

BDAF was the forerunner of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF). It started life as an initiative of Canon Collins to merge all the Christian Aid funds for South Africa sometime between 1958 and 1961. Its role was to raise funds for the legal defence of political prisoners, and for their families, and later to raise public consciousness in the UK for the international organisation.

Christian Aid : [Part 3]

Christian Aid was instrumental in galvanising anti-apartheid efforts in the UK. Director Rev. Michael Taylor drove the creation of the Southern Africa Coalition in the 1980s, which brought together trade unions, church groups and others to press the British government to help end apartheid. The organisation started as Christian Reconstruction in Europe shortly after World War II. It became a department of the British Council of Churches, and was eventually renamed the Department of Interchurch Aid and Refugee Service. It was renamed Christian Aid in 1964.

Trades Union Congress : [Part 2]

The TUC is a federation of trade unions in the UK which started in 1868. It gave direct support to unions in South Africa and was active in boycott campaigns nationally and internationally.

Africa Bureau : [Part 1]

The Africa Bureau was set up in 1952 by, amongst others, Mary Benson and Rev. Michael Scott, and operated until 1978. It was active in the area of international sanctions and worked with the AAM in the 1960s. It later split into the Africa Bureau and Africa Educational Trust.

Africa Centre

The Africa Centre was established in 1964 in London to create awareness about developments in Africa. Leading African artists, writers, politicians and musicians met at the centre and it served as a platform by organising evenings with theatre and discussions.

Africa Educational Trust

The Africa Educational Trust (AET) was founded in 1958. Originally it was part of the Africa Bureau, which later split into the Africa Bureau and Africa Educational and Publication Trust. The main aim was to help exiles and refugees with their education.

Anti-Apartheid Movement : Scottish Committee : [Part 1]

Activities in Scotland started in the 1960s with AAM branches in Glasgow and Edinburgh, leading to the establishment of the Scottish Committee and opening an office in 1989. It was active in boycott campaigns, support to South African anti-apartheid organisations, the End Loans to South Africa campaigns and the call for comprehensive sanctions. It had a women’s subcommittee, youth desk and a trade union subcommittee as well as a Scottish Committee for Local Authority Action against Apartheid. It dissolved in 1994 and continued as Action for Southern Africa Scotland (ACTSA Scotland).

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 1]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 2]

The AAM started in 1959 under the name The Boycott Movement Committee. It changed its name to AAM in 1960 after the Sharpeville massacre to become a permanent organisation. It grew into one of the biggest anti-apartheid organisations in the world with committees covering specific subjects and branches all over the UK. It was a member of the European Liaison Group. It was often the fore-runner and initiator of international campaigns and worked closely with the ANC and UN agencies. It dissolved itself in 1995 to continue as Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA).

Anti-Apartheid Movement, London (London Anti-Apartheid Committee) branch : [Part 2]

AAM London was the umbrella organisation for the 32 anti-apartheid groups in the Greater London area, and a regional committee of the national anti-apartheid movement. It took an active role in promoting the boycott movement, encouraging local groups to picket supermarkets, branches of Barclays Bank, Shell garages and other organisations supporting apartheid. It also encouraged involvement by the trade unions and churches, among many other organisations, in the anti-apartheid struggle.

Birmingham Anti-Apartheid Movement

Birmingham Anti-Apartheid Movement was formed around 1966 and was very active in the consumer boycott. It started twinning projects with the ANC in the Western Transvaal and organised an annual ‘Soweto Walk’ to raise funds.

Bishop Ambrose Reeves Trust

The South Africa Racial Amity Trust (SARAT), launched in 1966, was the predecessor of The Bishop Ambrose Reeves Trust (BART). SARAT aimed to promote knowledge about apartheid through research and publications. It paid special attention to the plight of children under apartheid. It was renamed BART in 1980 in honour of its treasurer. It was dissolved in 1996.

British Defence and Aid Fund Southern Africa : [Part 1]

BDAF was the forerunner of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF). It started life as an initiative of Canon Collins to merge all the Christian Aid funds for South Africa sometime between 1958 and 1961. Its role was to raise funds for the legal defence of political prisoners, and for their families, and later to raise public consciousness in the UK for the international organisation.

City of London Anti-Apartheid Group (City Group) : [Part 1]

The City of London Anti-Apartheid Group was a breakaway group of the national AAM, founded in 1982 by Norma Kitson, and allied to the Revolutionary Communist Group. City Group developed a close working relationship not only with the ANC and SWAPO, but also with the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), AZAPO, and Black Consciousness supporters. In 1985 City Group was expelled from the national AAM, and from 1986 - 1990 its supporters maintained a Non-Stop Picket outside the South African Embassy in Trafalgar Square calling for the release of Nelson Mandela. The City Group archives provide an opportunity to understand a different perspective on the international anti-apartheid movement.

Coventry Borough Labour Party : [Part 3]

The Coventry Labour Representation Committee was founded in December 1902. The Coventry Borough Labour Party, which grew out of it and was established in 1906, expanded its influence so that by 1923 Coventry had returned its first Labour MP. The party was instrumental in establishing the Coventry Anti-apartheid Committee in 1960. The early records of the party were destroyed during the blitz on the city in 1940, and the surviving records mostly date from after the war.

End Loans to Southern Africa

The End Loans to Southern Africa (ELTSA) started in 1974 with campaigns against British banks with South Africa ties. Its aim was to end apartheid through the imposition of effective financial sanctions. It broadened its work to include consumer and shareholder action and parliamentary lobbying. It did a lot of research to support its campaigns. It transformed itself into the Southern Africa Economic Research Unit (SAERU) in 1994.

Health and Refugee Trust of South Africa

The Health and Refugee Trust of South Africa was established in 1988. The prime objective of HEART was the provision of health and welfare to the tens of thousands of South African refugees during the apartheid regime. They sought to actively promote health education, immunisation, nutrition, and provision of essential drugs, water and sanitation and treatment of common diseases.

International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa : [Part 1]

IDAF started in 1956 as Christian Action, later becoming the British Defence and Aid Fund which started its work with the 1956 Treason Trial in South Africa. IDAF became an international organisation in 1965. The South African Defence and Aid Fund was banned in 1966. Over the years, many national affiliates and branches were set-up. It smuggled millions of pounds into South Africa to defend thousands of political activists and provided aid to their families. It paid lawyers to defend political detainees and provided financial support families of political prisoners. It published numerous books and films on repression in South Africa.

Lawyers Against Apartheid

Lawyers Against Apartheid was formed in 1986 to lobby the legal community in the UK. It was affiliated to the AAM. As a specialist organisation, it concentrated on the exposure of the illegitimacy of the apartheid regime and promoting the Prisoner of War status for captured freedom fighters. It dissolved in 1996.

Liberation : [Part 2]

Liberation started in 1954 as the Movement for Colonial Freedom (MCF) and changed its name in 1970 to Liberation. Its mission was to work towards the political freeing of colonial peoples and political independence. It worked with trade unions and the labour party, supported the AAM, War on Want and other organisations. It did a lot of educational work, organised public meetings and conferences, and lobbied government. It dissolved in 1997.

Oil Working Group : [Part 1]

The Oil Working Group was created in 1980 by War on Want, the Methodist Church Overseas Division and the United Reform Church to raise the issue of illegal oil exports to Southern Africa. They lobbied oil companies, raised questions at annual general meetings, undertook research and publicised their findings. The group was renamed Embargo in 1985 and ELTSA took over its administration. Embargo functioned until 1993.

Political Archives : [Part 2]

The Political Archives website is the product of a project sponsored by the Vice-Chancellor's Development Fund (University of London) and run jointly by the Institute of Commonwealth Studies (ICS) and the Institute for the Study of the Americas (ISA). It aims to improve access to and use of their extensive collections of political ephemera. Southern Africa is particularly well represented, with materials from a wide variety of different political parties, trade unions and pressure groups.

Southampton Anti-Apartheid Group

The Southampton Anti-apartheid Group is perhaps best remembered for delivering a giant Barclays cheque to the local Barclays branch on 4 April 1979. The cheque was made payable ‘for bribery and corruption by the South African Government’ and signed ‘Connie Muldergate’. South African Information Minister Connie Mulder was forced to resign because he established a government slush fund to promote South Africa’s image overseas. SAAG was also involved in the boycott of South African imports, as well as the Shell and BP boycott organised by the national AAM in 1981.

Wales Anti-Apartheid Movement : [Part 1]

The Welsh Committee of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) was established in 1981 and adopted the name The Wales Anti-Apartheid Movement (WAAM). WAAM operated as a national movement in Wales, with a clear Welsh identity. It was dissolved in 1994 following the first democratic elections in South Africa and its assets were transferred to Action for Southern Africa (ACTSA) Wales, which continues to campaign and work for peace and democracy in Southern Africa.

Women against Apartheid - Frankfurt [Frauen gegen Apartheid - Frankfurt] : [Part 2]

This was a local organisation of women in Frankfurt which formed part of the national Women against Apartheid organisation. Its activities included a boycott campaign against the Krugerrand gold coin and campaigns against banks making loans to South Africa. It also participated in the Outspan fruit boycott, and worked in schools.

World Gold Commission

The World Gold Commission (WGC) was founded in 1988 to promote worldwide sanctions against South African gold sales. It received financial support from the UN Centre Against Apartheid and was backed by the AAM and the liberation movements. It was active in information dissemination and the presentation of evidence to international bodies.

Archbishop Trevor Huddleston

Trevor Huddleston collection includes correspondence on Nelson Mandela, speeches, addresses, newspaper cuttings , Free Mandela Campaigns and 1990 concert . Celebration of the Nelson Mandela's 70th birthday held at Wembley Stadium. Includes correspondence and papers relating to a service celebrating the release of Nelson Mandela (broadcast February 1990).
Audio visual collection, metering on the inauguration of Nelson Mandela. BBC program on Nelson Mandela as president of South Africa.

Huddleston, Trevor

Anthony Sampson

Papers of Anthony Sampson has a section on "Materials relating to Mandela: The authorised biography.'' This material comprises of research notes made by Sampson it ranges from photocopies and papers, mainly relating to Nelson Mandela’s life. The collection also has audio visual material.

Sampson, Anthony

John Mendelson

Correspondence, circulars reports to South Africa including letter from the British Consulate- General in Johannesburg on the Rivonia treason trial (1963) letter from John Mendelson to David Astor regarding Nelson Mandela and his colleagues (1974).

Mendelson, John

Papers of John Mendelson, M P

Letters, circulars, reports relating to South Africa including letter from the British Consulate-General in Johannesburg re the Rivonia Treason Trial (1963), copy of a letter from David Astor to Harold Wilson (1965), letter from Stop the Seventy Tour re possible resumption of arms sales (1970), letter from John Mendelson to David Astor re Nelson Mandela and his colleagues (1974).

Mendelson, John

South African Political Papers of His Honour Judge Kellock

The material includes fragments of the Rivonia Trial Transcript concerning the details of the charges; news sheets and press releases about the Rivonia Trial; a statement by Kellock on the Trial; information sheets on South African legislation; minutes and circulars from the World Campaign for the Release of South African Political Prisoners. Other material includes Anti-Apartheid Movement correspondence, and national and executive committee meeting minutes for 1965 - 1966; correspondence relating to the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee and its officials; and papers relating to the Nyasaland emergency of 1959.

Judge Kellock, (formerly Mr. Thomas Oslaf Kellock, Q.C.) was Chairman of the National Committee of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in Britain from 1963-65. This group of papers is mostly concerned with the period when Mr. Kellock was sent to South Africa by Christian Action to act as an observer for the Defence and Aid Fund at the Rivonia Trial in 1964.

Kellock, Thomas Oslaf

South African Trials

Transcripts of political cases.
Peripherally related to the Rivonia Trial is File 4: Inquest to establish cause of death of Looksmart Ngudle. It contains: transcript of complete proceedings. Pretoria, 21st Oct. 1963 - 23rd Dec. 1963. Looksmart Ngudle, a ninety-day detainee held under the Sabotage Act, was found dead, hanging in his cell at Pretoria Central Police Station, on September 5th, after 16 days in detention. He had been arrested in Cape Town and was found in possession of a firearm and some African National Congress leaflets. The four witnesses, held at the same time as Ngudle, said when cross-examined by the Defence that they had been tortured with electric shocks and severe beatings. One said that he was forced to sign a statement claiming that Ngudle was an important Umkonto we Sizwe leader (Ngudle was named in the Rivonia Trial as a co-conspirator). Each of the witnesses stated that Ngudle had told them that he was being tortured. The state claimed that Ngudle hanged himself because he had betrayed his comrades and had been told that he was going to be sentenced to death anyway. Further evidence of torture was ruled irrelevant: the court refused to accept the Defence's contention that torture (which the police denied) was a contributing factor to Ngudle's suicide. The hearing was adjourned.

Untitled

Archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM)

Archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM) and predecessor material including the Boycott Movement. Material directly related to the Rivonia Trial includes:
O.7 Political Prisoners Campaigns, 1956-95:
-O.7.1.b Correspondence, 1962-70: Correspondence concerning the Rivonia trialists and other condemned South African leaders, 1964 (MSS AAM 1791)
-O.7.5.e General files, 1961-95: Information on the Rivonia trial and trialists, 1963-90 (MSS AAM 1953)

W.2 African National Congress (ANC) posters, 1978-95:
'We salute our leaders. Sentenced to life imprisonment. Rivonia 1963. Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki, Mhlaba, Motsoaledi, Mlangeni, Kathrada, Goldberg.' 1980s? Mainly black and white; photographs (MSS AAM 2512/2/4), 1 poster

Rivonia Trial references might also appear in other parts of this collection for example, the campaigns the AAM took relating to the Trial might appear in the minutes of the Executive Committee and in annual reports.

British Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM)

Papers of Stephen Clingman Relating to Bram Fischer

The papers were collected by Stephen Clingman while researching his biography entitled "Bram Fischer: Afrikaner Revolutionary" (1998). They are mainly photocopies of correspondence and newspaper cuttings.

The Rivonia Trial material appears in section relating to legal and political cases in which Bram Fischer was involved (boxes 20-21), Shelfmark: MSS. Afr. S. 2444 / 21, 1 box (285 folios):
fols. 1-157) the Rivonia Trial (1963-6). Includes newspaper cuttings and typescripts entitled:
-Operation Mayibuye'
-'The Voice of the African National Congress'
-'A Call To The Youth' (issued by the Johannesburg District of the South African Communist Party)

Clingman, Stephen

National Archives United Kingdom

David Astor correspondence to the British Ambassador Sir John Maud thanking him for helping him to get the books to Nelson Mandela (13 October 1962.) John Maud’s correspondence to David Astor confirming receipt the of Nelson Mandela letter's receiving the books (4 October 1962). Enclosed is a receipt from Nelson Mandela for the books (2 October 1962). Hand written note from Nelson Mandela confirming that he received the books via the embassy (14 September 1962). Correspondence from the resident commissioner , Mafikeng to the High commission, Cape Town. Nelson Mandela travels ( 20 January 1962). Correspondence from the High Commission in Cape Town to the Secretary of State Colonies. Arrival of Mandela in Lobatse and a charter to fly him to Tanganyika paid by a bank in Dar es Salaam (22 January 1962)

Astor, David

National Archives United Kingdom

The Summary of the opening of the trial against Neville Alexander et all. Report (13 November 1963)
The escape of Bob Hepple. Telegram ( 28 November 1963. Prison conditions with affidavits from Bernstein, Goldberg, Motsoaledi, Mbeki, Kathrada and Sisulu. Report (21 November 1963. Rivonia trial Newspaper articles (November 1963). Note from Mitford to the British consulate general requesting for political trials that might seriously affect the Rivonia trial closely monitored. Note ( 5 December 1963). Visit by John Arnold Q.C. a leading conservative barrister in London ( includes a summary of proceedings). Report (13 December 1963). Arrest, assault and torture of Isaac Tale of the ANC at the hands of security police who wanted him to testify against the Rivonia accused. Police claimed to him that Joe Slovo bought Nelson Mandela and Sisulu with money from the communists. Report/Affidavit ( no date) Report of John Arnold Q.C. at the international commission of Jurists on his visit to South Africa and includes a comment that he believed the Rivonia trial judge was fair and partial. Report (16 December 1963). Rivonia trial. Various news articles ( December 1963)

National Archives United Kingdom

Death sentence in Rivonia trial "unlikely"
Note (4 June 1964)
Upcoming judgment and sentence in the Rivonia trial
Note (2 June 1964)
The Australian representative to South Africa has been instructed to register his government's concern over the Rivonia trial.
Note (9 June 1964)
U.K. should abstain in the vote on the Rivonia resolution by Ivory Coast and Morocco unless is amended ( Add as that America will also abstain)
Note ( 10 June 1964)
Verdicts in the Rivonia trial
Telegram (11 June 1964)
Analysis of evidence at the Rivonia trial
Report ( 10 June 1964)
Decision to defer any attempt by the U.S. to get a reduction in Rivonia trail sentences until the defence has lodged an appeal.
Note ( 14 June 1964)
Unsigned copy of the Rivonia trial judgment
Judgment: Rivonia trial (15 June 1964)

National Archives United Kingdom

Terrorism trial of Essop et al. Report ( 1972)
Arrest of Moumbaris et al- Report (1972)
Ahmed Timol inquest - Report (1972)
Release from Robben Island of M.D. Naidoo after having served his five-year sentence- Report (1972) Winnie Mandela breaking banning orders- Correspondence ( 28 April 1972) Mrs. Winnie Mandela' s brother in law had bought her groceries for her, when she went to the door to fetch them she was arrested for contravening her banning order : Mrs. Mandela wins appeal over grocery list case. Newspaper article from The Time London ( 26 April 1976).Prisoners study privileged. Correspondence from Lord Lothian to Dennis Healy (25 February 1972)
South Africa n government refusal to give Shantie Naidoo ' a passport to leave the country and refers it her refusal to testify against Winnie Mandela. Report from the U. N. Unit on Apartheid ( January 1972) Refusal for permission to study. Correspondence from the Commissioner of Prisons (Steyn) to the British Ambassador Arthur Shelley ( February 1972)

Commonwealth Office

Records of the Commonwealth Office and Foreign Commonwealth Office: Southern African Department and predecessors includes material on the Treatment of prisoners including Nelson Mandela in South Africa

National Archives United Kingdom

Nelson Mandela's life sentence
Reactions various 1963. Foreign reaction to the Rivonia trial judgment and sentences. Statement in parliament by H.F. Verwoerd (16 June 1964). Rivonia trial judgment ( includes newspaper cuttings). Correspondence ( 16 June 1964)
Rivonia trial sentence Summary from press articles (1964)
Question whether the British government should ask the South African government to reduce the life sentences handed down in the Rivonia trial.
Correspondence ( 26 June 1964)
Libyan embassy in London will ask the UK secretary of state to intervene and have the Rivonia trial life sentences reduced.
Report ( 15 June 1964) The U.S. state department will not ask for a reduction in the Rivonia trial.
Correspondence Internal British foreign office (27 June 1964) Secretary of the state talking about the RivoniaSpeech to the House of Commons ( July 1964) The Canadian Ambassador asks that the Rivonia trial sentences be reduced
Report (22 July 1964) Rivonia trial accused decide not to appeal Report (27 July 1964)
The German government approaches South Africa about the Rivonia trial sentences
Report ( 2 September 1964) Book on Rivonia trial by Judge De Villiers
Report (24 September 1964)

National Archives United Kingdom

Winnie and Nelson Mandela
Correspondence from A Fleming to British Prime Minister James Callaghan ((14 August 1976). Political situation in South Africa - refers to Winnie and Nthato Motlana seeking an interdict in restraining Mr. Shabangu of Soweto, UCB from molesting children and property.

National Archives United Kingdom

Written by Nadine Gordimer- Biographies of Rivonia Trialists ( April 1964)
Nelson Mandela speech from the dock ( scheduled for 20th April) Analysis of the Rivonia Trial (8 April 1964) Rivonia trial- Notes from Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign affairs (10 April 1964)
Nigerian government's concern for the Rivonia accused - Notes (10 April 1964)
Potential intervention by the British government-Discussions (various n.d.)
Possible intervention by German government in Rivonia trial - Note (16 April 1964)
Rivonia trial defence- Newspaper articles ( various April 1964)
Kenyan's government's anxiety about Rivonia trail- Note (n.d)
African leaders plan on demonstrations if Nelson Mandela is executed -Notes ( 7 May 1964)
Ethiopia asks for Belgium to exert pressure on South African government - Note (6 may 1964)
Nelson Mandela's speaking in Addis Ababa- exhibit R13 in the Rivonia trial
Notes on Nelson Mandela ( May 1963)
Notes on Bram Fischer's defence statement Notes ( 20 April 1964)
The likely outcome of the Rivonia trial Discussion document (n.d.)
" The Revolutionary way out"
Statement of the SACO (n.d.)
"Should the British Prime Minister send a private message to Verwoed about Rivonia?"
Correspondence ( 7 May 1964; reply on 14 May saying it would be inadvisable)
Letter enclosing Nelson Mandela's statement from the dock. Correspondence from (6 May 1964)
Van den Bergh of Boss does not expect a death sentence to be passed in the Rivonia trail
Note 20 May 1964.

National Archives United Kingdom

Closing case against Nelson Mandela (includes information that Mr. L.J. Blom-Cooper from Amnesty saw the magistrate leaving for lunch with the Security Branch in their car. This led to Nelson Mandela to call the magistrate to recuse himself from the trial but he refused. Confidential report from the British embassy. ( 26 October1962). Nelson Mandela's trial. Report from British embassy. Arrest of Nelson Mandela (including biographical details)
Report from the British embassy, Pretoria to the Foreign office, London.

British Embassy, Pretoria

National Archives United Kingdom

Mr. Kawawa, the vice president of Tanganyika appeals for Nelson Mandela's release. Tanganyika Standard (11 August 1962) Nelson Mandela's trial French newspaper article. Extracts from Nelson Mandela's address to the court and probably a posed photograph of him n suit (by Michael Peto). Article from the Observer (18 November 1962). Conversation with Mr. Blom-Cooper of Amnesty about Nelson Mandela's trial. Report ( 29 November 1962). Correspondence to the British M.P. on concerns about Nelson Mandela's trial and saying that the process is fair. Correspondence. Nelson Mandela's trial Report (16 October 1962. Nelson Mandela's sentencing. Report ( 9 November 1962)

National Archives (Unitted Kingdom)

National Archives United Kingdom

Correspondence from the Nigerian diplomats on various British expatriates working at universities and hospitals who promise to resign from their positions if Nelson Mandela is sentenced to death.
Correspondence (29 May 1963)

Press Articles

National Archives United Kingdom

The end of the SASO trial
Correspondence ( 23 December 1976) The South African situation. Press release by SSRC released by Khotso Seatlholo ( 29 October 1976)

SASO

National Archives United Kingdom

The trial and sentencing of Constable Johannes Arnoldus Greef for his role on helping Arthur Goldreich to escape. Newspaper article. Report on the substance of O.R. Tambo to the U.N. special committee about people accused of sabotage . Report 9 October 1963. Report on the proceedings of the Rivonia trial. Press reports. 222 Acts of sabotage between 10 August 1961 and 1963. Article from the Star (9 October 1963). Moves to raise Pretoria trial issue at U.N. Article from the Star ( 10 October 1963). Conversation with Bram Fischer about the Rivonia trial. Letter from Durossil to the Foreign Office, London ( 19 October 1963). De Wet quashed indictment "The Rivonia trial collapses.
Articles from the Rand Daily Mail. ( 30 October 1963)

Rand Daily Mail

Oxfam International

Oxfam International was formed in 1995 by a group of independent non-governmental organisations. The name 'Oxfam' comes from Oxford Committee for Famine Relief, founded in Britain in 1942. Oxfam International member NGOs aimed to work together for greater impact on the international stage to reduce poverty and injustice. They organised their own anti-apartheid campaigns, and also participated in campaigns organised by AAMs.

Christian Aid : [Part 2]

Christian Aid was instrumental in galvanising anti-apartheid efforts in the UK. Director Rev. Michael Taylor drove the creation of the Southern Africa Coalition in the 1980s, which brought together trade unions, church groups and others to press the British government to help end apartheid. The organisation started as Christian Reconstruction in Europe shortly after World War II. It became a department of the British Council of Churches, and was eventually renamed the Department of Interchurch Aid and Refugee Service. It was renamed Christian Aid in 1964.

Africa Bureau : [Part 2]

The Africa Bureau was set up in 1952 by, amongst others, Mary Benson and Rev. Michael Scott, and operated until 1978. It was active in the area of international sanctions and worked with the AAM in the 1960s. It later split into the Africa Bureau and Africa Educational Trust.

Commonwealth Pressure Groups, Trade Unions and Political Parties Materials

The Institute of Commonwealth Studies at the University of London has three big collections covering pressure groups, trade unions and political parties within the Commonwealth. The collections started in 1960 and have a special emphasis on primary materials. Besides printed materials, the collections also contain posters, badges, and stickers. Anti-apartheid activities are covered in the collections.
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