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Mandela -196+

Radio South Africa- Interview
Radio Today- Dr M Buthelezi, Mr. F.W. De Klerk
Report by Manas Tsungu on a meeting between the State President of South Africa, Mr. FW
De Klerk and chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi of Kwa Zulu with actuality of the two leaders who refer to
the issue of negotiations and the possible release of Nelson Mandela.

RECORDBC 19891130

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Mandela -196+

English Service Class Actuality Program Rivonia Trial - A short summary of the Rivonia Trial case the verdict and the passing of sentences by Judge president Quartus de Wet.

RECORD BC 19640611

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Radio RSA: English Service

A recording of proceedings at the Rivonia Trial, the State versus Nelson Mandela and nine others, including the verdict and passing of sentences, as well as FW De Klerk's announcement of Nelson Mandela's release from prison in 1990.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Radio RSA: General

Interviews about the South African negotiation process. FW De Klerk is interviewed about the respective roles played by him and Nelson Mandela.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

RSN

Programmes and programme segments. Includes reports and interviews on the following:
PW Botha's speech to the South African parliament about the possible release of Nelson Mandela. Nelson Mandela's release from prison in 1990. Nelson Mandela speaking at African National Congress (ANC) conferences and at various mass gatherings after his release from prison. ANC demands in order to resume political negotiations. Political prisoners on Robben Island. Nelson Mandela's meeting with South African traditional leaders. The signing of the National Peace Accord by Nelson Mandela and others.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Radio Suid-Afrika

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on programmes such as Monitor, Spitstyd and Kaleidoscope. Includes reports and interviews on the following:
Biographical history of Nelson Mandela. The release of Nelson Mandela from prison, and reactions of political leaders in parliament to the news of his release. Statements and addresses by Nelson Mandela to the US congress. Nelson Mandela's visit to West Germany. African National Congress (ANC) policies. The ANC's first national congress held in South Africa after it's unbanning. The South African negotiation process, the CODESA talks and the Government of National Unity. The relationship between the ANC and the South African Communist Party. Political violence in the 1990s, including the Boipatong massacre.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Radio Sesotho

Programmes broadcast on Radio Sesotho.
Subjects include Nelson Mandela's release from prison and his inauguration as the first democratically elected President of South Africa.
Language: Sesotho

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Radio Metro

Interviews with Nelson Mandela, conducted by Tim Modise.
The interviews cover subjects such as the struggle against Apartheid, how it feels to be president, foreign aid to South Africa, Government of National Unity, and the South African economy.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Afrikaans Stereo

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on programmes such as Monitor and Sport parade. Includes reports and interviews concerning:
Nelson Mandela's call for the expansion of the Goldstone Commission of Enquiry. Mandela's role in the peace talks between the African National Congress (ANC) and the Inkatha Freedom Party. The first ANC national conference held in Durban, after unbanning. Nelson Mandela's role in the lifting of sanctions against South Africa. The far right wing in South Africa, and Mandela's visit to Orania. The results of South Africa's first democratic election and the inauguration of Mandela as President. Highlights of the 1996 rugby world cup. Nelson Mandela's views on the role of the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC). Visit of Nelson Mandela and FW De Klerk to the United States. Relationship between the ANC and the South African Communist Party.
Nelson Mandela's visits to schools in South Africa.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Radio Zulu

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on Radio Zulu. Includes reports and interviews on the following:
Nelson Mandela's reiteration of the African National Congress (ANC) commitment to a peaceful settlement in South Africa. The ANC's suspension of the armed struggle. Tributes by Nelson Mandela to assassinated ANC leader, Chris Hani, and to his long-time comrade, Oliver Tambo. Debates between Mandela and FW De Klerk. The record of understanding between the ANC and the South African government in the early 1990s. Nelson Mandela's condemnation of attacks on journalists. The meeting between Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Nelson Mandela, and Nelson Mandela's visit to the Natal Midlands. The results of South Africa's first democratic election. Nelson Mandela's inauguration speech and the opening of parliament for the first time by Mandela. Sporting events held in honour of Nelson Mandela and reports of the 1996 rugby world cup.
Nelson Mandela birthday celebrations.
Language: isiZulu

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Lesedi FM

1996 New Year message by Nelson Mandela, broadcast on the programme, Current Affairs.
Languages: Sesotho and English

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Radio Xhosa

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on the Breakfast Show. Includes reports and interviews on the following:
Meetings between Nelson Mandela and FW De Klerk. The 1994 elections. The inauguration of Mandela as the first democratically elected President of South Africa. The opening of parliament. The new constitution of South Africa . Commemoration of the 1976 uprisings. Memorial service of Chris Hani. Mandela birthday celebrations, as well as New Year messages delivered by him. Nelson Mandela’s visits to New York, and his addresses to the United Nations General Assembly.
Language/s: English and Xhosa

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Channel Africa

Programmes and programme segments broadcast by Channel Africa, including:
Comments by Nelson Mandela on the National Party's walkout from the Government of National Unity in 1995. The situation in Sudan, 1997. An interview with Carl Niehaus on Nelson Mandela's book, 'Long Walk to Freedom.'

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Thobela FM

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on Hlokwa la tsela. Includes reports and interviews on the following:
A speech by Nelson Mandela about peace in KwaZulu-Natal during local government elections. The unveiling of the statue of Samora Machel in Mozambique in 1998. The South African Rugby Football Union (SARFU) enquiry in 1998 in which Nelson Mandela was requested to testify in court. Bill Clinton's visit to South Africa in 1998.
Languages: Sepedi and English

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Motsweding FM

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on programmes such as On Line - the Nation's Forum, Talk Show, Podi Ya Tsela, Current Affairs and Boresetse.
Includes reports and interviews on the following:
Nelson Mandela's arrest, imprisonment and release from prison. Nelson Mandela's call for the maintenance of sanctions against South Africa in 1990. Visits by Nelson Mandela to Robben Island.
The future role of all political and non-political parties in South Africa. Tours of African states undertaken by Nelson Mandela in 1990. Christmas messages by Nelson Mandela to the South African public. The acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize by Nelson Mandela and FW De Klerk in 1993. The 1994 elections debate between Nelson Mandela and De Klerk, and reports on the first democratic election. Nelson Mandela's inauguration as President of South Africa. The amnesty cut-off date for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Nelson Mandela's meeting with the President of Brazil. The speech delivered by Nelson Mandela at the Non-Aligned Movement Summit held in Durban, South Africa in 1999. Openings of the South African parliament. Honorary doctorates conferred on Nelson Mandela. The future of the Heath Commission of Enquiry into corruption in South Africa.
Languages: English and Setswana

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Reminiscences of Helen Suzman: Oral History, 1984

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on Radio South Africa, on programmes such as Monitor, Radio Today, Woman's World and News Wrap. Includes reports on:
The perspectives of the Reagan administration on the anticipated release of Nelson Mandela. The outgoing president of the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League, Peter Mokaba. FW De Klerk's announcement of a date for the release of Nelson Mandela. Mandela's release from prison and his speech on the Grand Parade in Cape Town on the day of his release, as well as other mass gatherings held to welcome Nelson Mandela. Reactions of political leaders in parliament to the release of Mandela. Deadlines set for the release of all political prisoners. Reports on the first ANC conference after its unbanning, held in Durban in December 1990. Political violence in South African townships. Nelson Mandela calling for an end to rent and services boycotts in black townships. The ANC's view on the National Peace Accord. The approval of an interim constitution for South Africa. Tributes by Nelson Mandela to friends and comrades. ANC Economic policy.
The South African police, and it's submissions to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Mandela's attendance at international conferences. The results of the first democratic election. Mandela's election and inauguration as President of South Africa. Visits by international Heads of State, and Mandela addressing the US congress and the United Nations General Assembly. Mandela's farewell to formal South African politics. Thabo Mbeki's presidential inauguration speech.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Ikwenkwezi

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on programmes such as Yiza Nendlebe and Ukuvulwa Kwe Palamende. Includes interviews and reports on:
Nelson Mandela's release from prison. Openings of the South African parliament by Nelson Mandela during his presidential years. Nelson Mandela and Bill Clinton addressing a press conference after bilateral talks in 1998. New Year messages by President Mandela to the South African public. Nelson Mandela's retirement from politics in 1998. South Africa's second and third democratic elections in 1999 and 2004 respectively, and the inauguration of Thabo Mbeki as President of South Africa. The South African Rugby Football Union (SARFU) enquiry in which Nelson Mandela was compelled to testify in court about the reasons for appointing a commission of enquiry.
Languages: Ndebele and English

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Ligwalagwala

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on the radio programme, Letiphuma Embiteni. Includes reports and interviews on:
Nelson Mandela's family life and his imprisonment on Robben Island. The USAID donation of R35 million to the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund, for its HIV/AIDS programme. The World Aids Conference held in Durban, South Africa, 2000. The Middle East peace talks, 2000. The politics of George W. Bush.
Languages: Swazi and English

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

SA FM

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on AM Live, PM Live, Scoreboard and Woman Today. Includes reports and interviews on the following:
Nelson Mandela's international visits to South East Asia, the United Kingdom, Japan and Singapore. Reports on Mandela's tour of Southern Africa. Conflict in Zaire and the role of the South African government in peace talks. The 50th anniversary of the United Nations. Tony Blair's visit to South Africa. The 12th Non-Aligned Movement summit held in Durban, South Africa. Mandela's farewell as Head of State, to the international community, and addresses to the United Nations General Assembly. The South African intervention in the Lesotho conflict. The unveiling of the tombstone of Chris Hani. The funeral of Harry Gwala. Messages by Nelson Mandela on the first democratic elections in South Africa. New Year and Christmas messages by Nelson Mandela. The new constitution of South Africa and Nelson Mandela's signing of the new constitution into law. Comments by Nelson Mandela on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and Mandela signing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission into law. Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings, including the Pollsmoor March to free Mandela in 1996. Gains made by the new South African government. Freedom Day celebrations. Workers Day. Nelson Mandela's last official speech to the South African Parliament, as Head of State. The 1999 South African elections. The Broudi Commission of Enquiry opposed in court by the South African Rugby Football Union (SARFU).
The ANC national conference held in Port Elizabeth in 2000.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Munghana Lomnene FM

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on Tiko A Xi Etleli. Includes reports and interviews on the following:
Nelson Mandela's release from Victor Verster prison in February 1990. Mandela's inauguration as President of South Africa in 1994. Christmas and New Year messages delivered by Nelson Mandela. Reconciliation and nation building. Speeches delivered at openings of the South African parliament. Freedom Day celebrations in 2000. The visit of the Indonesian President to South Africa in 1996. Honorary doctorates conferred on Nelson Mandela. The opening of the Nelson Mandela National Museum in Mthatha. Nelson Mandela's closing address at the World Aids Conference in Durban in 2000.
Languages: Xitsonga and English

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

SABC Sound Archive Collection

Speeches, interviews and reports, including:
Nelson Mandela's speech after the African National Congress (ANC) victory in South Africa's first democratic election. Nelson Mandela's first 100 days in office as President of South Africa. The opening of parliament. The opening of the Constitutional Court by President Mandela. The handing over of the final Truth and Reconciliation Commission report to President Nelson Mandela by Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Bill Clinton's visit to South Africa and his address to the South African parliament. The visit of Yasser Arafat to South Africa.
Extracts from famous speeches by Nelson Mandela.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

H. K. Zulfikar

An interview with Nelson Mandela on Sports Hour, about the progress of South African sport and Mandela's love for sport.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Radio 2000

Programme segments broadcast on Radio 2000. Includes reports on:
Interviews with Nelson Mandela about the political situation in South Africa. Nelson Mandela at the funerals of Chris Hani, Joe Slovo and Oliver Tambo. The awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to Nelson Mandela and FW De Klerk. The complete recordings of CODESA proceedings. Election debates between Nelson Mandela and De Klerk. The inauguration of Mandela as the first democratically elected President of South Africa. Speech by Nelson Mandela on the 84th anniversary of the African National Congress (ANC). Sporting news such as the South African 2010 World Cup Soccer bid presentation, with a live feed from Switzerland.

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Radio Sonder Grense

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on programmes such as 'Land en sand,' 'Monitor' and news programmes. Includes reports and interviews on:
Violence in Richmond, KwaZulu-Natal. The US-targeted bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. The 12th Non-Aligned Movement Summit held in Durban, South Africa. The death of Princess Diana. The 1997 Comrades Marathon. South Africa's second and third democratic elections, held in 1999 and 2004, respectively. The inauguration of Thabo Mbeki as President in 1999.
Languages: English and Afrikaans

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Phala-Phala FM

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on programmes such as Ndevhetsini and Vhulombe. Includes reports on:
Nelson Mandela's speech at the Rivonia Trial in 1964, and his sentence to life imprisonment on Robben Island; Nelson Mandela's release from prison; Nelson Mandela's biographical history. Debate between Mandela and FW De Klerk in 1990. Tributes at the funerals of Chris Hani and Oliver Tambo. South Africa's political negotiations at CODESA 1 and 2. Nelson Mandela's acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. African National Congress (ANC) election victory in 1994. Nelson Mandela's presidential speeches at the Union Buildings in 1994 and at the second session of the first democratic parliament in South Africa. Progress review of the first 100 days in government of the ANC; The opening of South Africa's parliament by Nelson Mandela in 1995; South Africa's Government of National Unity. Adoption of the new South African constitution. Nelson Mandela's visit to the United Kingdom (UK) in 1996, and his address to the UK parliament. The visits of international Heads of State to South Africa, including Francois Mitterrand and King Karl Gustav XXI. Visits by Nelson Mandela to Mali, Togo, South-East Asia and the United States. The election of Nelson Mandela as the chairperson of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in 1996. The opening of Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) houses in Soweto. The release of the final Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) report in 1996. Reports on the infighting within the ANC on Nelson Mandela's successor to lead the organisation. Nelson Mandela's resignation as ANC president in 1997. The farewell function for Nelson Mandela as President, and Thabo Mbeki's inauguration as President of South Africa in 1999.
Nelson Mandela opening the Nelson Mandela National Museum in Umtata. Visits by Nelson Mandela to South African schools. The South African general elections of 2004. Nelson Mandela's speech at the closing of the international AIDS conference in Durban in 2000, and addressing the international AIDS conference in Bangkok in 2004.
Languages: Venda and English

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Umhlobo Wenene

Programmes and programme segments broadcast on programmes such as Apha Naphaya. Includes reports and interviews concerning:
The final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The 12th Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit held in Durban, South Africa, and the election of Nelson Mandela as the President of NAM. Nelson Mandela's final State of the Nation address to the South African parliament. The opening of the Nelson Mandela National Museum in Mthatha. The awarding of the World Methodist Peace Award to Mandela. Mandela's views on George W. Bush's undermining of the United Nations. Nelson Mandela's 85th birthday celebrations and his retirement from public life. A tribute by Nelson Mandela to Walter Sisulu. The World Aids conference in Durban in 2000 and Cape Town in 2004. The announcement of South Africa, as the winning country for the 2010 world cup soccer bid.
Languages: isiXhosa and English

South African Broadcasting Corporation [DO NOT USE]

Mandela: An Audio History

  • ZA SABC SA MR-RT-011
  • Collection
  • 1964 - 2004
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

SAFM documentary in two parts for The Inner Ear Programme. Details the role played by Nelson Mandela and the ANC in the struggle for freedom in South Africa. Compiled by Joe Richardson and Sue Johnson and presented by Will Bernard. Dated 9 May 2004.

Part 1 deals with the call for armed struggle, the creation of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the arrests at Rivonia. Mandela as the first witness in the Trial, four hour statement from the dock made at the Trial, sentencing to life imprisonment, meaning of Rivonia Trial.

South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC)

Rivonia Trial: Sentencing

  • ZA SABC SA MR-RT-012
  • Collection
  • 1963 - 1990
  • Part of Rivonia Trial

SABC English Service broadcast. A short summary of the Rivonia Trial case, the verdict and the passing of sentence by Judge President Quartus De Wet. Dated 11 June 1963.

South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC)

Rivonia Trial: Quartus De Wet/Bram Fischer/Dr Percy Yutar

SABC English Service broadcast. Recordings of the proceedings during the Rivonia Trial. Includes recordings of Judge President Quartus De Wet, the prosecutor Dr Percy Yutar and counsel for the defence Bram Fischer. Mandela appears as Accused number 1. Dated 3 December 1963.

South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC)

The Voice of Nelson Mandela

Extracts from his famous Statement from the Dock. Produced in 2001.

South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC)

The Road to Democracy in South Africa

'The Road to Democracy in South Africa' is a series of books published by the South African Democratic Education Trust (SADET). Volume 3 is dedicated to the International Solidarity movement and organisations. Volume 5 deals with the African Solidarity movement.

South African History Archive

SAHA is a human rights archive located at Constitution Hill, Johannesburg. The Struggles for Justice Programme, though mainly concentrating on South African organisations and people, also contains materials of international AAMs.

Julie Frederikse Collection

Sound recordings and interview transcripts. Julie Frederikse worked as a journalist for National Public Radio (NPR) in the USA covered politics in South Africa. The collection includes a taped interview with Denis Goldberg and a file on him. The file contains newspaper clippings of his release in 1985; stickers re his release and release of all political prisoners; transcript of the interview (mostly on his life including rationale behind joining armed struggle) and a biography. The interview does not go into detail about the Rivonia Trial itself.

Fredrickse, Julie

Hilda and Rusty Bernstein Papers

Rusty (Lionel) Bernstein's Papers include personal correspondence to family and comrades, professional documentation relating to his career as an architect and inventor, and a large collection of writing, including drafts and material for his political biography "Memory Against Forgetting" as well as articles, essays and literature relating to prominent events in the liberation struggle (the 1946 Mine Workers Strike, The Freedom Charter and the Rivonia Trial). The collection also includes written material relating to his political career in the Communist Party and involvement with the ANC and as editor/contributor to journals like Fighting Talk and The African Communist and a lecture series given in Moscow to young militants of the ANC. Hilda Bernstein's papers include a series of journals dating from 1967 to 2001 and personal diaries written whilst in prison, and on travels throughout South Africa and Europe. A large part of the collection marks her involvement with women's rights and work for the ANC Women's League. There is also a considerable collection of art records documenting her career in London and Europe. The bulk of the collection is comprised of records relating to Hilda's extensive writings - books, articles and political literature. Of particular prominence is material collected for her most recent book "The Rift", which captures the experiences of South African exiles. There is also a large collection of correspondence both personal and professional and political brochures relating to her position as City Councillor for the Communist Party in Johannesburg from 1943 to 1946. The records kept by Hilda (viewed as 'evidence' of Hilda's activities) far outnumber those kept by Rusty. It would be misleading to presume that this is in any way a complete archive of the Bernstein's activities.

Records directly related to the Rivonia Trial are:
D1.2 Sketches, Rivonia Trial done by Hilda on scraps of paper in black pen during the trial. There are drawings of the judge, Special Branch policemen, court scenes and the back of the heads of the accused.
F2.18 Article by Hilda: "The Rivonia Trial" (1 December 1963), 4 pages of a reflection on the trial
F2.23 Article by Hilda: "The Men Who Many Die" (8 March 1964)
F2.25 Article by Hilda: "Rivonia" Landmark in SA Liberation Struggle" (24 June 1964) detailing what happened at Rivonia
F3.36 Article by Hilda: "The Trials of Nelson Mandela" (undated)
R3.1 Article in Sechaba 1989: "Rivonia: Telling it as it was"
V2.1 Transcript of Judge's remarks when passing sentence in the trial (photocopy)
V2.2 "Rivonia: The Story of Accused No. 11" by Bob Hepple. Memoirs (manuscript) with letters from Sisulu and Joffe as appendix.

Minor references to the Rivonia Trial are:
B2.1 Diary notes where Hilda refers visiting Rusty in jail, going to court and consulting with lawyers amongst other things
I11.1.2 Letter addressed to Rusty from Hilda in Pretoria Jail. Aside from address, not reference to trial or Rivonia events.
N4 Correspondence re his inventions and other business between Rusty and Hilda while he was in prison during the Rivonia Trial
Q1 Draft Novel by Rusty written in Pretoria Local Prison during the trial in 1963/4. Content not related to Trial in any way.

Bernstein, Robert L

South African History Archive Photograph Collection

Forms part of Struggles for Justice Archival Collection at SAHA. This collection was opened by Julie Frederikse whilst researching her book The Unbreakable Thread. The 1210 photographs she collected, form the bulk of this collection. SAHA photographs are incorporated into the broader Historical Papers photograph collection stored in the Ephemera room. A few individual photographs relating to the Rivonia Trial are in this collection under 21A including the front page of "The Argus" newspaper with a report on the verdict (21A.10).

South African History Archive (SAHA)

South African History Archive Poster Collection

Forms part of Struggles for Justice Archival Collection at SAHA. In the formative years, SAHA was managed by non-archivists, who applied library techniques to their collection, arrangement and description activities. Materials were catalogued by subject and/or physical medium, with very little attention paid to preserving documentation in accordance with its original context or what is referred to as ‘provenance’ in archival discourse. This approach saw the emergence of six collections one of which was the Poster Collection. The collection dates mainly from the 1980s and 1990s. There are duplicate copies for a substantial proportion of the items. Posters acquired by Historical Papers are also included in this collection. All items are retrievable on a database. The book Images of Defiance: South African Resistance Posters of the 1980s (Raven Press, Johannesburg, 1991)
reproduced 327 items from the collection. Slides of the latter are also available
(see AL2432). A few individual posters relating to the Rivonia Trial are: Poster 181 (SN1096) "Release Mandela Campaign Remembers Rivonia Trial" from 1985 (?) from Release Mandela Campaign and Poster 1049 (SN599) "We remember Rivonia and life-serving prisoners: Release all political prisoners" from Release Mandela Campaign, UDF, COSATU, SAYCO from 1987 (?).

South African History Archive (SAHA)

Records of the United Democratic Front (UDF)

Established in 1983 to coordinate opposition to the Apartheid State's reforms, the UDF promoted links between various organisations, region and parties. The UDF Collection was created by adding together material from various sources: individuals, the UDF Information Office and UDF offices from around the country. Gaps are evident. The National Reception Committee which was created to deal with the release of the Rivonia trialists operated from the UDF offices. There is a small amount of material related to this: A1.13.4 Statements and Press Releases (1988, 1989) including on the release of Rivonia leaders (1 file, 10 items) and A1.18.8 Profiles of various people including of Rivonia leaders (1 file, 8 items).

United Democratic Front (UDF)

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